Directory:Logic Museum/William of Ockham

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William of Ockham was an English Franciscan and scholastic philosopher, from Ockham, Surrey, a small village in Surrey, in England. He is considered, along with Thomas Aquinas and Duns Scotus, to be one of the major figures of medieval thought. Commonly known for Ockham's Razor, the methodological principle that bears his name (although he was not the originator of the principle), Ockham also produced important works on logic, physics, and theology. He is probably best known for his ardent defence of nominalism, the doctrine that "we should not multiply entities according to the multiplicity of terms", i.e. we should not suppose that everything that looks like a name, actually names something real, outside the mind. In the Church of England, his commemoration day is April 10.


Church in Ockham, Surrey. The building dates from about 1220

William was born in 1287 in the village of Ockham (probably the village of that name near London in Surrey). He probably entered the Franciscans at London as puer oblatus, when he was seven or eight, where he would have received instruction in grammar and elementary logic, as well as an introduction to Franciscan life. After his novitiate, he embarked on more advanced studies of logic and philosophy in London, and he was ordained subdeacon at the age of eighteen in 1306. He continued to study philosophy and theology until he was admitted to the lectorate program at the Oxford studium in 1310.

He began studying theology at Oxford, probably in 1317, when he began the requisite two-year period of lecturing on Peter Lombard's Sentences. On 18 June 1318 he was ordained priest in Oxford and received a licence to hear confessions[1].

After this, probably in 1321, he is thought to have taught philosophy at the Franciscan Studium Generale in London, and to have worked alongside Walter Chatton and Adam de Wodeham (his foremost disciple)[2]. From this 'London period' date most of Ockham’s important philosophical works, his eucharistic treatises (De quantitate and De Corpore Christi), and his great work, the Summa Logicae.

In this period, Ockham also began his Quodlibeta, completed in Avignon c.1325, and revised his Sentences commentary (resulting in the Ordinatio, the version of the commentary that Ockham defended before the examination committee in Avignon). Ockham encountered opposition to the work he completed in England, even from fellow friars such as Walter Chatton, whose students accused Ockham of heresy[3]. This Franciscan opposition probably also led to Ockham’s appearance before the provincial chapter of 1323.

By 1324, John Lutterell, a former chancellor of Oxford university, was questioning Ockham’s orthodoxy, and Ockham was summoned to the papal court at Avignon. Arriving in Avignon between January and May 1324, he stayed there while his theological and philosophical works were being examined. In 1326 the commission, headed by Durand of St. Pourçain, concluded that 51 propositions in Ockham's writing deserved censure, but they were never formally condemned by the Pope. In 1237, the Franciscan minister general Michael of Cesena arrived in Avignon. Ockham met Cesena and became embroiled in the dispute about Francisan poverty, about whether Christ and his disciples had ever owned anything.

At the request of Michael, Ockham began to study John XXII’s views on Franciscan poverty, concluding that the pope’s views were heretical. The dispute forced him to leave Avignon for Pisa with Michael and other dissidents on May 26, 1328. On June 6, 1328, Ockham was officially excommunicated - not for his writings, but for leaving Avignon without permission.

In Pisa the group of dissidents met Louis of Bavaria, the Holy Roman Emperor, who was engaged in a political dispute with the Papacy. Ockham is supposed to have said to Louis "Defend me with the sword and I will defend you with the pen" (me defendas gladio; ego te defendam calamo). Louis offered Ockham's group protection, and in 1330, Ockham travelled to the imperial court in Munich, where he occupied the rest of his life exclusively with political and ecclesiological treatises. He died in April 1347, when he was about 60.


The methodological principles that underlie Ockham's philosophy, and which are frequently appealed to by him, are as follows. First, the world is composed of singulars, each of which exists of itself or through itself (per se). Ockham thus denies the medieval theory of universals, according to which universals (objects supposedly signified by common terms like 'man', 'donkey') are really existing things outside the mind, distinct from the individual. Second; if any two things in the created world are really distinct, then it is possible through God's power (per divinam potentiam) to separate them. Third, the so-called Ockham's Razor - do not multiply entities merely in accordance with the multiplicity of names. This is the principle which underscores Ockham's nominalism. Fourth, do not make any statement unless it is either self-evident, a teaching of sacred scripture, or evident from sense-experience, or is logically deducible from these.


Ockham published several philosophical works before he was summoned to the Papal Court in 1323 on charges of heresy. The first was his Commentary on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, a standard requirement for medieval theology students, who would comment on this famous book of opinions (sententia) on certain controversial or difficult theological statements. Ockham also wrote several commentaries on Aristotle's works, and published his debates on 'Quodlibetal questions' (i.e. questions on any subject you like).

Ockham’s great work is the Summa of Logic, which is partly a treatise or manual of logic, partly a work of metaphysics which resolves many philosophical questions into questions of logic and language. it is the last of his 'academic' works.

After his quarrel with the papacy, Ockham wrote and circulated several political works unofficially, the most important of which is his Dialogue on the Power of the Emperor and the Pope. All of his works have been edited into modern critical editions but not all have been translated into English.

Commentary on the sentences

Book I survives in an ordinatio or revised and corrected version, approved by the author himself for publication. Books II-IV survive only as a reportatio a transcript of lectures, taken down by a 'reporter', without the benefit of later revisions or corrections by the author.

Commentaries on the old logic (1321-24)

Commentaries on Porphyry's Isagoge and of Aristotle's Categories, On Interpretation, and Sophistic Refutations .

  • Kluge, Eike-Henner W., trans. 1973-74. “William of Ockham's Commentary on Porphyry: Introduction and English Translation.” Franciscan Studies 33, pp. 171-254, and 34, pp. 306-82.

Summa of Logic

Latin: Summa Logicae

  • Loux, Michael J. 1974. Ockham's Theory of Terms: Part I of the Summa Logicae. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press. Complete Translation.
  • Freddoso, Alfred J., and Schuurman, Henry, trans. 1980. Ockham's Theory of Propositions: Part II of the Summa logicae. Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press.
  • Longeway, John Lee (2007), Demonstration and Scientific Knowledge in William of Ockham, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN. A translation of Summa Logicae III-II : De Syllogismo Demonstrativo, with selections from the Prologue to the Ordinatio.

Treatise on Predestination (1321-24).

Treatise on Predestination and God's Foreknowledge with Respect to Future Contingents

  • Adams, Marilyn McCord, and Kretzmann, Norman, trans. 1983. William of Ockham: Predestination, God's Foreknowledge, and Future Contingents. 2nd ed. Indianapolis: Hackett.

Quodlibetal Questions 1322-24

The seven Quodlibeta are probably the record of disputations held in the Franciscan house near London where Ockham taught after finishing at Oxford. The disputations probably took place between the Autumn of 1322 and 1324, between Ockham and his critic Walter Chatton. The disputed subjects range from grammar and logic to metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. The work was revised by Ockham in Avignon 1324-25.

  • Joseph C. Wey (ed.) Quodlibeta Septem, St. Bonaventura University, NY, 1980, 838pp.
  • Freddoso, Alfred J., and Kelly, Francis E., (trans.) 1991. Quodlibetal Questions. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Commentaries on the Physics (1322-24)

Latin title: Brevis Summa Libri Physicorum

This is a short summary of Aristotle's book Physics.

  • Opera Philosophica, St Bonaventura NY: vol VI.
  • Davies, Julian, trans. 1989. Ockham on Aristotle's Physics: A Translation of Ockham's Brevis Summa Libri Physicorum. St. Bonaventure, N. Y.: The Franciscan Institute. Complete translation of the Brief Summa of the Physics.

Questions on Aristotle's Books of the Physics (before 1324)

Work of Ninety Days (1332-34)

Latin: Opus nonaginta dierum. The Work of Ninety Days was Ockham’s first major work in his twenty-year campaign against Pope John XXII. It is a critical commentary on the Pope’s work Quia vir reprobus. It includes a discussion of the place of voluntary poverty in religious life, the place of property in civil life, and its relation to natural rights and human law. "Ockham dissects with remorseless logic and barely concealed moral outrage an edict of Pope John XXII that had condemned Michael of Cesena, head of the Franciscan Order for daring to defend the traditional Franciscan position that property could be used without being owned. "[4]

ISBN10: 0-7734-7528-1 ISBN13: 978-0-7734-7528-1 Pages: 496 Year: 2001 A Translation of William of Ockham’s Work of Ninety Days Vol. 1 Kilcullen, John. Edwin Mellen Press 2001

Dialogue (c. 1334-46)

The book is presented as a record of discussions between a student and a university master about opinions on the dispute between Pope John XXII and the dissident Franciscans. The gist of the work is that a pope's orthodoxy is as much open to scrutiny as that of any ordinary Christian, and a pope is not entitled to use the power of his office to evade such scrutiny.

Part 1 of the Dialogue is long, and is the only part that seems to be complete. Part 2 does not really belong to the work at all. Part 3 is divided into two "tracts". Ockham had planned to compose as many as six additional "tracts" in this Part, but none are extant.

The Dialogue is not as well known as the 'academic' works but, according to Kilcullen, they deserves a place "beside Marsilius's Defensor Pacis, Hooker's Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, Hobbes's Leviathan and Locke's Two Treatises, among the classics of political thought.[5]"

See Dialogus, LATIN TEXT AND ENGLISH TRANSLATION edited by John Kilcullen, George Knysh, Volker Leppin, John Scott and Jan Ballweg, under the auspices of the Medieval Texts Editorial Committee of the British Academy here [3].

Letter to the Friars Minor (1334)

The Letter to the Friars Minor was addressed to the 1334 general meeting of the Franciscan Order (i.e. of those who had submitted to the pope), explaining why Ockham was not with them.

McGrade, A. S., and Kilcullen, John, ed. & trans. 1995. A Letter to the Friars Minor and Other Writings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Translation of several of Ockham's political writings, including the Letter to the Friars Minor, Eight Questions on the Power of the Pope, and The Work of Ninety Days.

Eight Questions on the Power of the Pope

Eight Questions on the Power of the Pope (1340-41). Eight Questions on the Power of the Pope, reporting and comparing various opinions on the powers of the pope in relation to the Roman Empire.


Primary sources (Franciscan Institute )


  • De Sacramento Altaris: Paris BN Lat. 15888 ff. 174va-180v
  • Sermones: see Schneyer, II, 525-533
  • Opus Nonaginta Dierum: Paris, BN, 3387 ff. 1-175
  • Tractatus contra Joh. XXII: Paris, BN, 3387 ff. 175-213v
  • Tractatus contra Benedict. XII: Paris, BN, 3387 ff. 214-262
  • Tractatus de Principiis Theologiae: Paris BN 15888 ff. 163ra-174vb
  • Epistola ad Fratres Minores apud Assisium Congregatos: Paris, BN, 3387 ff. 262v-265.
  • Questiones super I.Sent.: Brussels, Bibl. Royale, 1284 (an. 1471)
  • Summa Logica: Bruges, Bibl. de la Ville 498 (an. 1340); Avignon, Bibl. Mun. 1086 (1343)
  • De Imperatorum et Pontificum Potestate: Deventer, OB 100 ; London, British Museum Reg. 10.A.XV
  • Impugnatio constitutionum Papae Iohannis (April/May 1328): MS Florence, Biblioteca Med. Laurenziana 31.3


The best primary sources are the critical editions of Ockham's philosophical, theological and political works published by the Franciscan Institute Press. These can be hard to locate - this is the first site on the internet to list all the volumes with their contents, as follows.

  • Opera Philosophica Volumes I-VII. St. Bonaventure, N.Y.: Franciscan Institute Press, 1974-1988.
  • Opera Theologica Volumes I-X. St. Bonaventure, N.Y.: Franciscan Institute Press, 1967-1986.

Theological works

Opera Theologica I-IV - Scriptum in librum primum sententiarum Franciscan Institute, 1967-79.


  • Vol. I Prologus et distinctio prima ed. G. Gal, adlaborante S. Brown (1967)
  • Vol. II Distinctiones II-III ed. S. Brown, adlaborante G. Gal (1970).
  • Vol. III Distinctiones IV-XVIII / ed. G. I. Etzkorn (1977).
  • Vol. IV Distinctiones XIX-XLVIII / ed. G. I. Etzkorn et F. E. Kelley (1979).

Opera Theologica V - 'Quaestiones in librum secundum Sententiarum (reportatio) / 1981 515 p.

ed. Gal, Gedeon, Wood, Rega

Opera Theologica VI - Quaestiones in librum tertium Sententiarum (reportatio) 1967, Kelley, Francis E., ed. Etzkorn, Girard J., 1927-, ed.

Opera Theologica VII - Quaestiones in librum quartum Sententiarum (Reportatio) 1984 384 pp.

Wood, Rega, ed. Gal, Gedeon, 1915-1998-, ed. Green, Romuald, ed.

Philosophical works

  • Opera Philosophica I - Summa Logicae
    • St. Bonaventure, N.Y. : Editiones Instituti Franciscani Universitatis S. Bonaventurae, 1974. 899 p., eds Boehner, Philotheus, Gál, Gedeon, 1915- Brown, Stephen. **
  • Opera Philosophica II
    • Expositionis in libros artis logicae prooemium et expositio in librum porphyrii de praedicabilibus (ed. Moody)
    • Expositio in librum Praedicamentorum Aristotelis (ed. Gedeon Gal)
    • Expositio in librum Perihermenias Aristotelis (ed. A. Gambatese and S. Brown)
    • Tractatus de praedestinatione et de praescientia dei respectu futurorum contingentium (ed Boehner and revised by Stephen Brown)

Opera Philosophica III - Moody, et al

Expositio super libros Elenchorum Additional Authors: Del Punta, Francesco, ed.

Opera Philosophica IV - Expositio in Libros Physicorum (Prologus et libri I-III ), Richter SJ Vladimir and Leibold Gerhard 1985

Opera Philosophica V - Expositio in Libros Physicorum (Books IV-VIII), Wood Rega; Gál OFM Gedeon; Green OFM Romuald; Kelley Francis; Leibold Berhard; Etzkorn Girard J. 1985

Opera Philosophica VI - Brevis summa Libri Physicorum, Summula philosophiae naturalis et Quaestiones in libros Physicorum Aristotelis 1984 Brown, Stephen, 1933-, ed.

Opera Philosophica VII

Opera Dubia et Spuria. Tractus Minor et Elementarium Logicae. Includes Tractatus de Praedicamentis Quaestio de Relatione Centiloquium Tractatus de Principiis Theologiae. Buytaert OFM Eligius; Etzkorn Girard J; Mohan OFM Gaudens; Boehner OFM Philotheus; Baudry Leon; Kelley Francis E.

These treatises are not of Ockhamian authorship.

Primary sources (other)

  • Opera Politica Volumes I-III. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1940-1963. A critical edition of certain of Ockham's political writings, including the Opus Nonaginta Dierum (Work of 90 days).

Secondary sources

J. Hofer, ‘Biographische Studien über Wilhelm von Ockham’, AFH 6 (1913), 209-233, 439-465, 654-669

  • A. Pelzer, ‘Les 51 articles de Guillaume Occam, censurés en Avignon, en 1326’, Revue d’Histoire Ecclésiastique 18 (1922), 245ff
  • F. Federhofer, ‘Die Philosophie des Wilhelm von Ockham in Rahmen seiner Zeit’, Franziskanische Studien 12 (1925), 273-296
  • A. Garvens, ‘Grundlagen der Ethik Wilhelms von Ockham’, Franziskanische Studien 21 (1934), 243-273, 304-408
  • J. Koch, 'Neue Aktenstücke zu dem gegen Wilhelm Ockham in Avignon geführten Prozess', Recherches de Théologie Ancienne et Médiévale, 7 (1935), 353ff & 8 (1936), 79ff & 168ff
  • E. Moody, The Logic of William of Ockham (New York, 1935)
  • C. Tornay, ‘The Nominalism of William of Ockham’, Philosophical Review 45/3 (1936), 245-267
  • E. Bonke, ‘Doctrina nominalistica de fondamento ordinis apud G. de Ockham et G. Biel’, Collectanea Franciscana 14 (1944), 57-70
  • P. Boehner, ‘Die unpolemischen Schriften Ockhams’, Franziskanische Studien 32 (1950), 156-163
  • L. Baudry, Guillaume d’Occam, I: L’homme et les oeuvres (Paris, 1950)
  • V. Heynck, ‘Ockham-Literatur 1919-1949’, Franziskanische Studien 32 (1950), 164-183
  • Adalbert Hamman, ‘la doctrine de l’Église et de l’etat d’après le Bréviloquium d’Occam’, Franziskanische Studien 32 (1950), 135-141
  • P.Boehner, ‘The Relative Date of Ockham’s Commentary on the Sentences’, Franciscan Studies 11 (1951), 305-316
  • L. Baudry, Lexique philosophique de Guillaume d’Occam (Paris, 1958)
  • L. Vereecke, ‘L’obligation morale selon G. d’Ockham’, La Vie Spirituelle, suppl. 45 (1958), 123-143
  • C.K. Brampton, ‘A Note on Auriol, Ockham and MS Borghese 329’, Gregorianum 41 (1960), 713-716
  • J.M. Rubert y Candau, ‘Los principios básicos de la ética en el Ockhamismo y en la via moderna de los siglos XIV y XV’, Verdad y Vida 18 (1960), 97-116
  • C.K. Brampton, ‘Guillaume d’Ockham et la ‘prima redactio’ de son Commentaire sur les Sentences’, Revue d’histoire ecclésiastique 56 (1961), 470-476
  • C.K. Brampton, ‘The Probable Date of Ockham’s ‘Lectura Sententiarum’, AFH 55 (1962), 367-374
  • C.K. Brampton, ‘The probable Order of Ockham’s Non-polemical Works’, Traditio 19 (1963), 469-483
  • S.F. Brown, ‘Sources for Ockham’s prologue to the Sentences’, Franciscan Studies 26 (1966), 36-65 & 27 (1967), 39-107
  • G. Gál, ‘Gualtieri de Chatton et Guilelmi de Ockham controversia de natura conceptus universalis’ Franciscan Studies 27 (1967), 191-212
  • J.P. Reilly, ‘Ockham Bibliography, 1950-1967’, Franciscan Studies 28 (1968), 197-214
  • T. de Andrès, El Nominalismo de Guillermo de Ockham como Filosofia del languaje (Madrid, 1969)
  • M. McCord Adams & N. Kretzmann, William Ockham: Predestination, God’s Foreknowledge, and Future Contingents (New York, 1969)
  • Jürgen Miethke, Ockhams Weg zur Sozialphilosophie (Berlin, 1969)
  • L. Urban, ‘William of Ockham’s theological ethics’, Franciscan Studies 33 (1973), 310-350
  • Arthur Stephen McGrade, The Political Thought of William of Ockham. Personal and Institutional Principles, Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life and Thought 3rd series, 7 (Cambridge, 1974)
  • Gordon Leff, William of Ockham (manchester, 1975)
  • A. Maurer, ‘Ockham on the Possibility of a Better World’, Mediaeval Studies 38 (1976), 291-312
  • M. McCord Adams, ‘Ockham on Identity and Distinction’, Franciscan Studies 36 (1976), 5-74
  • A. de Muralt, ‘La connaissance intuitive du néant et l’évidence du je pense (…)’, Studia Philosophica 36 (1976), 107-158
  • Marilyn McCord Adams, ‘Was Ockham a Humean about Efficient Causality?’, Franciscan Studies 39 (1979), 5-48
  • Marylin McCord Adams & Rega Wood, ‘Is to Will It as Bad as to Do It?’, Franciscan Studies 41 (1981), 5-60
  • G. Gál, ‘Ockham Died Impenitent’, Franciscan Studies 42 (1982), 90ff
  • J.A. de C.R. de Souza, ‘As idéias políticas de Guilherme de Ockham na Consultatio de causa matrimoniali’, in: Pensamento Medieval: X Semana de Filosofia de Universidade de Brasília, ed. J.A. de Camargo Rodriguez de Souza (São Paulo, 1983), 160-186
  • A. Goddu, The Physics of William of Ockham (Leiden, 1984)
  • A. Patin, ‘Trois maîtres franciscains dans le manuscrit latin 15888 de la Bibliothèque National de Paris’, Franziskanische Studien 66 (1984), 265-284
  • S. Brown, `Walter Chatton's Lectura and William of Ockham's Quaestiones in Libros Physicorum Aristotelis', in: Essays Honoring Allan B. Wolter, ed. W.A. Frank & G.J. Etzkorn (St. Bonaventure, New York, 1985)
  • G. Knysh, ‘Ockham’s Avignon Period: Biographical Rectifications’, Franciscan Studies 46 (1986), 64ff
  • Marilyn McCord Adams, William of Ockham 2 Vols (Notre Dame, 1987)
  • William Courtenay, Schools and Scholars in Fourteenth Century England (Princeton, N.J., 1987), 193-218
  • Catherine Tachau, Vision and Certitude in the Age of Ockham: Optics, Epistemology and the Foundations of Semantics, 1250-1345 (Leiden: Brill, 1988)
  • L. Freppert, The Basis of Morality According to William Ockham (Chicago, 1988)
  • P. Alféri, Guillaume d’Ockham. Le singulier (Paris, 1989)
  • Michael J. Wilks, ‘Royal patronage and anti-papalism from Ockham to Wyclif’, in: From Ockham to Wyclif, ed. Annes Hudson & Michael Wilks (Oxford, 1989), 135-163
  • J. Davis, Ockham on Aristotle’s Physics (St. Bonaventure, 1989)
  • W.J. Courtenay, `Ockham, Chatton, andd the London Studium: Observations on Recent Changes in Ockham's Biography', in: Die Gegenwart Ockhams, ed. W. Vossenkuhl & R. Schönberger (Weinheim, 1990)
  • A.S.McGrade> on the political works
  • J. Miethke, ‘Der Abschluß der kritischen Ausgabe von Ockhams akademischen Schriften’, Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters 47 (1991), 180-184
  • A. de Muralt, ‘L’univocité de l’être. Fondement critique de la négation de l’éxemplarité divine chez Guillaume d’Occam’, Collectanea Franciscana 60 (1990), 577-594
  • G. Etzkorn, ‘Ockham at a Provincial Chapter: 1324, a Prelude to Avignon’, AFH 83 (1990), 557-567
  • R. Cross, 'Nominalism and the Christology of William of Ockham', RThAM, 58 (1991), 126ff
  • G. Gál & R. Wood, `The Ockham Edition: William of Ockham's `Opera Philosophica et Theologica', Franciscan Studies, 51 (1991), 83-101
  • Peter Schulthess, Sein, Signifikation und Erkenntnis bei Wilhelm von Ockham (Berlin, 1992)
  • R. Imbach & P. Ladner, `Die handschrift 51 der Freiburger Franziskanerbibliothek und das darin enthaltene Fragment des Ockham zugeschriebenen Traktats `De Principiis Theologiae, in: Filosofia e teologia nel Trecento, Studi in ricordo di E. Randi, ed. L. Biancchi (Louvain-la-Neuve, 1994), 105-127
  • L.-M. de Rijk, `Ockham's horror of the Universal: an assessment of his view of individuality', Mediaevalia 7-8 (1995), 473-497
  • Pellegrini, A., Statuto epistemologico della teologia secondo Guglielmo di Occam (Città da Vaticano, 1995)
  • A. Poppi, Studi sull'etica della prima scuola francescana, 123-143
  • J. Miethke, Mittelalterliches Jahrbuch, 29 (1994), 61-82
  • John Boler, Franciscan Studies, 54 (1994-97), 79-98
  • Robert Andrews, Franciscan Studies, 54 (1994-1997), 99-123
  • Paul Vincent Spade, Franciscan Studies, 54 (1994-97), 227-250
  • A.S. McGrade, Franciscan Studies 54 (1994-1997), 143-165
  • G. Mensching, `Zur epocheprägenden Bedeutung des Nominalismus', in: Die Bibliotheca Amploniana. Ihre Bedeutung im Spannungsfeld von Aristotelismus, Nominalismus und Humanismus, ed. A. Speer (Berlin-NY, 1995), 353-366 [see also pp. 409-433]
  • W.J. Courtenay, `Was there an Ockhamist School?', in: Philosophy and Learning, 263-292 [Coll. Franc. B. 18, 724]
  • O. Leffler, Wilhelm von Ockham: Die sprachphilosophischen Grundlagen seines Denkens, Franziskanische Forschungen, 40 (Werl, 1995)
  • V. Leppin, Geglaubte Wahrheit. Das Theologieverständnis Wilhelm von Ockhams (Göttingen, 1995)
  • A. Pellegrini, Statuto epistemologico della teologia secondo Guglielmo di Occam (Firenze, 1995)
  • J. Biard, Guillaume d'Ockham. Logique et philosophie (Paris, 1997)
  • M. Damiata, I problemi di G. d'Ockham, I. La conoscenza, Biblioteca di studi Francescani (Florence, 1996) [also as Studi Francescani 93 (1996), 3-316]
  • M.F. González, `El franciscanesimo de Guillermo de Ockham: una aproximación biográfico-contextual a su filosofia', Rivista española de filosofia medieval, 2 (1995), 127-44
  • Lambert de Rijk, ‘Ockham’s horror of the universal: an assessment of his view of individuality’, Mediaevalia - Textos e Estudios 7-8 (1995), 473-497
  • A. Ghisalberti, `Guglielmo di Ockham e l'ockhamismo', in: Storia della teologia nel medioevo, III: La teologia delle scuole, ed. G. d'Onofrio (Casale Monferrato, 1996), 463-514
  • E. Karger, `William of Ockham, Walter Chatton and Adam Wodeham on the Objects of Knowledge and Belief', Vivarium, 33 (1995), 171-196
  • M. Kaufmann, `Ockham's Criticism of the Formal Distinction (...)', in: Via Scoti, ed. L. Sileo (Rome, 1995), 337-345
  • C.M. Talégon Herrero, `Nominalismo e ideología en el siglo XIV', Rev. Esp. Filos. Medieval 2 (1995), 121-126
  • M. Damiata, `Ockham e Pietro Aureolo', SF, 92 (1995), 711-106
  • Th. Kobusch, `Ens inquantum und ens rationis (...)', in: Aristotle in Britain during the Middle Ages, ed. J. Marenbon (Turnhout, 1996), 157-175
  • V. Leppin, `Mit der Freiheit des Evangeliums gegen den Papst (...)', Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie, 42 (1995), 397-405
  • Oliver Leffler, Wilhelm von Ockham, Die sprachfilosophischen Grundlagen seines Denkens, Franziskanische Forschungen, 40 (Werl, 1995)
  • A. Maurer, `Ockham's Razor and Dialectical Reasoning', Mediaeval Studies, 58 (1996), 49-65
  • B.D. Dutton, ‘Nicholas of Autrecourt and William of Ockham on atomism, nominalism, and the ontology of motion’, Med. Philos. Theol. 5 (1996), 63-85
  • D. Widerker, `Contra Snapshot Ockhamism', Intern. Journal Philos. Rel. 39 (1996), 95-102
  • Cl. Panaccio, La philosophie du language>>
  • D. Perler, `Ockham über Prädikation und Inhärenz', Documenti e studi sulla tradizione filosofica medievale, 5 (1994), 463-485
  • J. Miethke, `Señorío y libertad en la teoría politica del siglo XIV', Patristica et mediaevalia 16 (1995), 3-32
  • Les philosophies morales et politiques au moyen âge>>>
  • A. Poppi, `Il probleme dell'`intrinsece malum' in Guglielmo di Ockham', in: Idem, Studi sull'etica della prima scuola francescana, Centro Studi Antoniani, 24 (Padua, 1996)
  • Marcos Francisco González, Verdad y Vida 54 (1996), 153-185
  • Jan P. Beckmann, Wilhelm von Ockham, BsR 533 (Munich, 1996)
  • R. Imbach, Micrologus 4 (1996), 313-329
  • R. Imbach, Quodlibeta, 421-434
  • Armand Maurer, `Ockham's razor and dialectical reasoning', Mediaeval Studies 58 (1996), 49-65
  • W.J. Courtenay, ‘The debate over Ockham’s physical theories at Paris’, in: La nouvelle physique du XIVe siècle, 45-63
  • Olga L. Larre de González, La filosofía natural de Ockham como fenomenologia del individuo, Diss. (Buenos Aires: Universidad Católica Argentina, 1996)
  • A. Grazioso, `Guglielmo d'Occam filosofo del linguagio', MF, 97 (1997), 114-165
  • L. Polo, Nominalismo, idealismo y realismo (Barañain: Ediciones EUNSA, 1997)
  • O. Todisco, `Omnipotenza e Contingenza. La prospettiva filosofica di G. d'Occam', Miscellanea Franciscana 97 (1997), 166-263
  • Lili Alanen & Mikko Yrjönsuuri, ‘Intuition, jugement et évidence chez Ockham et Descartes’, in: Descartes et le Moyen Age, ed. J. Biard & R. Rashed (Paris, 1997), 155-174
  • M. Damiata, Studi Francescani, 94 (1997) & 95 (1998) totaly. See also earlier issues of previous years
  • Joël Biard, Guilaume d’Ockham. Logique et philosophie, Philosophies 80 (Paris, 1997)
  • Andrea Grazioso, ‘Guglielmo d’Occam filosofo del linguaggio’, Miscellanea Franciscana 97 (1997), 114-165
  • Takash Shogimen, ‘Ockham’s vision of the Primitive Church’, in: The Church Retrospective. Papers read at the 1995 Summer Meeting in the Ecclesiastical History Society. In Memory of Andrew Martindale, Studies in Church History 33 (Woodbridge-Rochester NY, 1997), 163-175
  • F. Hoffmann, Ockham-Rezeption und Ockham-Kritik im Jarhzehnt nach Wilhelm von Ockham in Oxford 1322-1332, Beiträge zur Geschichte der Philosophie und Theologie des Mittelalters Neue Folge 50 (Münster, 1997)
  • Alessandro Ghisalberti, Guillherme de Ockham, trad. Luis Alberto De Boni, Coleção Filosofia, 56 (Porto Alegre, 1997)
  • Brian Tierney, ‘Natural law and canon law in Ockham’s ‘Dialogus’’, in: Idem, Rights, Laws and Infallibility in Medieval Thought, Variorum Collected Studies Series, 587 (Aldershot: Variorum, 1997), Essay XIV, 3-24
  • Brian Tierney, ‘From Thomas of York to William of Ockham: the Franciscans and the papal Sollicitudo omnium ecclesiarum 1250-1350’, in: B. Tierney, Rights, Laws, and Infallibility in Medieval Thought, Variorum Collected Studies Series 578 (Aldershot: Variorum, 1997), Essay XV 607-658
  • Gerhard D. Wassermann, From Occam’s Razor to the Roots of Consciousness. Twenty essays in philosophy of science and philosophy of mind, Avebury Series in Philosophy (Ashgate: Aldershot, 1997)
  • Marino Damiata, ‘I problemi di G. d’Ockham. II: Dio’, Studi Francescani 94 (1997), 3-319
  • Christopher J. Martin, ‘Impossible positio as the foundation of metaphysics or, logic on the Scotist plan?’, in: Vestigia, Imagines, Verba: Semiotics and Logic in Medieval Theological Texts (XIIeth-XIVth Century), ed. Costantino Marmo, Semiotic and Cognitive Studies, 4 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1997), 255-276
  • Johannes M.M.H. Thijssen, ‘The crisis over Ockhamist hermeneutic and its semantic background: the methodological significance of the censure of December 29, 1340’, in: Vestigia, Imagines, Verba: Semiotics and Logic in Medieval Theological Texts (XIIeth-XIVth Century), ed. Costantino Marmo, Semiotic and Cognitive Studies, 4 (Turnhout: Brepols, 1997), 371-392
  • M. McCord Adams, ‘Ockham on Final Causality: muddying the waters’ Franciscan Studies 56 (1998), 1-46
  • J.P. Beckmann, ‘Ockham, Ockhamismus, und Nominalismus. Spuren der Wirkungsgeschichte des Venerabilis Inceptors,’ Franciscan Studies 56 (1998), 77-95
  • John Boler, ‘Ockham on difference in category’, Franciscan Studies 56 (1998), 97-113
  • Stephen Lahey, ‘William of Ockham and trope nominalism’, Franciscan Studies 55 (1998), 105-120
  • Martin Lenz, ‘Himmlische Sätze: Die Beweisbarkeit von Glaubenssätzen nach Wilhelm von Ockham’, Bochumer Philos. Jahrb. 3 (1998), 99-120
  • Volker Leppin, ‘Does Ockham’s Concept of Divine Power Threathen Man’s Certainty in His Knowledge of the World?’, Franciscan Studies 55 (1998), 169-180
  • Luca Parisoli, ‘Guglielmo di Ockham e la fonte dei diritti naturali: una teoría politica tra libertà evangelica e diritti fondamentali ed universali’, Collectanea Franciscana 68 (1998), 5-62
  • Volker Leppin, ‘Scholastik im Konfliktfeld einer spätscholastischen Universität. Ein Beitrag zum Verständnis Wilhelms von Ockham’, Jahrbuch der Akademie der Wissenschaften in Göttingen (1998), 124-127
  • Mark Reuter, ‘Language, lies, and human action in William of Ockham’s treatment of insolubles’, Vivarium 36 (1998), 108-133
  • Fritz Hofmann, Ockham-Rezeption und Ockham-Kritik im Jahrzehnt nach Wilhelm von Ockham in Oxford (1322-1332), Beiträge dur Geschichte der Philosophie und Theologie des Mittelalters, Neue Folge, 50 (Münster: Aschendorff verlag, 1998) [cf. Collectanea Franciscana 70 (2000), 254-256 & Wissenschaft und Weisheit 62 (1999), 138-143]
  • J.J. Macintosh, ‘Aquinas and Ockham on Time, Predestination and the Unexpected Examination’, Franciscan Studies 55 (1998), 181-220
  • J. Miethke, ‘Die ‘Octo Questiones’ Wilhelms von Ockham in zwei unbeachteten Handschriften in Lissabon und Tübingen’, Franciscan Studies 56 (1998), 291-305 [on MSS Lisboa Arquivo National da Torre do Tombo, Manuscritos da Livraria 447 and Tübingen Univ. Bibl. Mc. 128]
  • Carlos Steel, ‘Rational by participation. Aquinas and Ockham on the subject of the moral virtues’, Franciscan Studies 56 (1998), 359-382
  • Ignacio Miralbell, Guillermo de Ockham y su crítica lógico-pragmática al pensamiento realista, Cuadernos de Anuario Filosófico, Serie universitaria 56 (Pamplona, 1998)
  • Vladimir Richter & Gerhard Leibold, Unterwegs zum historischen Ockham, Mediaevalia Oenipontana 1 (Innsbruck, 1998) [cf. Collectanea Franciscana 69 (1999), 729-731]
  • Paul V. Spade, ‘Three Versions of Ockham’s Reductionist Program’, Franciscan Studies 56 (1998), 347-358
  • Takashi Shogimen, ‘William of Ockham and Guido Terreni’, History of Political Thought 19 (1998), 517-530
  • J.P. Beckmann, ‘Ockham, Ockhamismus, und Nominalismus: Spuren der Wirkungsgeschichte des Venerabilis Inceptors’, Franciscan Studies 56 (1998), 77-95
  • Orlando Todisco, Guglielmo d’Occam. Filosofo della contingenza, Classico delle Spirito-nuova serie (Padua, 1998)
  • Sigrid Müller, ‘Die Grenzen einer philosophischen Ethik bei William von Ockham’, in: Was ist Philosophie im Mittelalter?, Qu’est-ce que la philosophie au Moyen Age? What is Philosophy in the Middle Ages. Akten des X. Internationalen Kongresses für mittelalterliche Philosophie der Société Internationale pour l’Étude de la Philosophie Médiévale, 25. Bis 30. August 1997 in Erfurt, ed. Jan A. Aertsen & Andreas Speer, Miscellanea Medievalia, 26 (Berlin, 1998), 1041-1047
  • Laurence Renault, ‘Félicité humaine et conception de la philosophie chez Henri de Gand, Duns Scot et Guillaume d’Ockham’, in: Was ist Philosophie im Mittelalter?, Qu’est-ce que la philosophie au Moyen Age? What is Philosophy in the Middle Ages. Akten des X. Internationalen Kongresses für mittelalterliche Philosophie der Société Internationale pour l’Étude de la Philosophie Médiévale, 25. Bis 30. August 1997 in Erfurt, ed. Jan A. Aertsen & Andreas Speer, Miscellanea Medievalia, 26 (Berlin, 1998), 969-976
  • Arthur Gibson, ‘Ockham’s world and future’, in: Medieval Philosophy, ed. John Marenbon, Routledge History of Philosophy, 3 (London, 1998), 329-367
  • Marino Damiata, I problemi di G. d'Ockham, IV. L’uomo, Biblioteca di Studi Francescani (Florence, 1999) [also as Studi Francescani 96 (1999), 3-175.]
  • Jeannne Quillet, ‘Un exemple de nominalisme politique de la scolastique tardive: les doctrines de Guillaume d’Ockham’, in: Aspects de la pensée médiévale dans la philosophie politique moderne, ed. Y.Ch. Zarka (Paris, 1999), 61-66
  • Rega Wood, ‘Willing Wickedly: Ockham and Burley Compared’, Vivarium 37, 2 (1999), 72-93
  • Richard Cross, ‘Ockham on Part and Whole’, Vivarium 37, 2 (1999), 143-167
  • Bernardino de Armellada, ‘Guillermo de Ockham en la espiritualidad del siglo XIV’, Collectanea Franciscana 69 (1999), 79-106
  • Anne Ashley Davenport, Measure of a Different Greatness. The Intensive Infinite, 250-1650, Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters LXVII (Leiden-Boston-Köln: Brill, 1999), esp. chapters Six and Seven
  • J. Briard, Guillaume d’Ockham et la théologie, Initiation au Moyen Âge (Paris: CERF, 1999)
  • Verena Epp, ‘Herrschaft und Eigentum bei Wilhelm von Ockham und John Locke’, Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 34 (1999), 63-75
  • David Luscombe, ‘William of Ockham and the Michaelists on Robert Grosseteste and Dennis the Areopagite’, in: The Medieval Church: Universities, Heresy, and Christian Life. Essays in Honour of Gordon Leff, ed. Peter Biller & Barrie Dobson, Studies in Church History, Subsidia, 11 (Woodbridge, 1999), 93-109
  • A. Maurer, The Philosophy of William of Ockham in the Light of Its Principles, PIMS Studies and Texts 133 (Toronto-Turnhout, 1999)
  • The Cambridge Companion to Ockham, ed. Paul Vincent Spade (Cambridge-New York, 1999) [contains several good introductory articles, for instance by W.J. Courtenay (‘The academic and intellectual worlds of Ockham’), J. Kilcullen (‘The Political Writings’), Marylin McCord Adams (‘Ockham on will, nature and morality’) , Calvin G. Normone (‘Some aspects of Ockham’s logic’), Claude Panaccio (‘Semantics and mental language’), David Chalmers (‘Is there synonymy in Ockham’s mental language?’), Elizabeth Karger (‘Ockham’s misunderstood theory of intuitive and abstractive congition’), Gyula Klima (‘Ockham’s semantics and ontology of the categories’), Alfred J. Freddoso (‘Ockham oon faith and reason’), André Goddu (‘Ockham’s philosophy of nature’), Arthur Stephen McGrade (‘Natural law and moral omnipotence’) etc.]
  • Andrea Tabarroni, ‘Francescanesimo e riflessione sino ad Ockham’, in: Etica e politica. Le teorie dei frati mendicanti nel Due e Trecento (Spoleto, 1999), 203-230
  • Jurgen Miethke, ‘La théorie politique de Guillaume d’Ockham’, in: Histoire de la philosophie politique II: Naissance de la modernité, ed. Alain Renaut (Paris, 1999), 87-125
  • Jürgen Goldstein, ‘Ockhams Beitrag zur modernen Rationalität’, Zeitschrift für philosophische Forschung 52 (1999), 399-414
  • Janet Coleman, ‘Ockham’s right reason and the genesis of the political as ‘Absolutist’’, History of Political Thought 20 (1999), 35-64
  • Beretta Beatrice, Ad Aliquid. La relation chez Guillaume d’Occam, Dokimion. Neue Schriftenreihe zur Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie 22 (Fribourg, 1999)
  • Alfonso Maierù, ‘‘Signum’ negli scritti filosofici e teologici fra XIII e XIV secolo’, in: Signum: IX Colloquio Internazionale Roma, 8-10 gennaio 1998, ed. Massimo Luigi Bianchi, Lessico intellettuale europeo, 77 (Florence, 1999), 119-141
  • André de Muralt, ‘La critique de la notion scotiste d’ esse objectivum, le ‘psychologisme’ et le ‘nominalisme’ occamiens’, in: Métaphysiques médiévales: Etudes en l’honneur d’André de Muralt, ed. Curzio Chiesa & Léo Freuler, Cahiers de la Revue de Théologie et de Philosophie, 20 (Lausanne: Revue de Théologie et de Théologie, 1999), 113-148
  • Alessandro Ghisalberti, ‘L’evoluzione degli studi sul sec. XIV: Duns Scoto, Ockham e Buridano’, in : ‘Ob rogatum meorum sociorum’, 215-229
  • Joël Biard, Guillaume d’Ockham et la théologie, “Initiation au Moyen Âge” (Paris, Les Éditions du Cerf, 1999)
  • H.S. Offler. ‘The ‘influence’ of Ockham’s political thinking: The first century’, in: Idem, Church and Crown in the fourteenth century, art. No. X, 338-365
  • H.S. Offler, ‘The three modes of natural law in Ockham: A revision of the text’, in: Idem, Church and Crown in the fourteenth century, art. No. VIII, 207-216
  • H.S. Offler, ‘Zum Verfasser der ‘Allegaciones de potestate imperii” (1338)’, in: Idem, Church and Crown in the fourteenth century, article no. VI, 555-619
  • H.S. Offler, ‘The origin of Ockham’s “Octo quaestiones’, in: Idem, Church and crown in the Fourteenth Century, article no. VII, 323-332
  • Sigrid Müller, Handeln in einer kontingenten Welt. Zu Begriff und Bedeutung der rechten Vernunft (recta ratio) bei Wilhelm von Ockham, Tübinger Studien zur Theologie und Philosophie, 18 (Tübingen - Basel, A. Francke, 2000)
  • Bernhard Töpfer, ‘Status innocentiae und Staatsentstehung bei Thomae von Aquin und Wilhelm von Ockham’, Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 36,1 (2001), 113-129
  • Olga L. Larre, La filosofía natural de Ockham como fenomenología del individuo (Pamplona, Eunsa, 2000)
  • Carolina J. Fernández, ‘Guillermo de Ockham y el problerma de la causalidad’, Nuevo Mundo (Buenos Aires) 1 (2000), 239-255
  • Alexander Broadie, ‘Duns Scotus and William of Ockham’, in: The Medieval Theologians, ed. G.R. Evans (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000), 250-265
  • Francisco Bertelloni, ‘Hipótesis de conflicto y casus necessitatis: Tomás de Aquino, Egidio Romano y Guillermo de Ockham’, Veritas 45/3 (2000), 393-410
  • Francesco Bottin, ‘La scienza secondo Guglielmo di Ockham’, in: A ciência e a organização dos saberes, 315-327
  • Luis E. Bacigalupo, ‘Sobre los modos del derecho natural en Ockham’, Nuevo Mundo (Buenos Aires) 1 (2000), 225-237
  • Alessandro Ghisalberti, ‘Il Dio dei filosofi e il Dio dei teologi in Guglielmo di Ockham’, Sapientia 55 (2000), 3-12
  • George Knysh, ‘Ockham’s first political treatise? The “Impugnatio constitutionum papae (April/May 1328)’, Franciscan Studies 58 (2000), 237-259
  • Jürgen Miethke, De potestate papae. Die päpstliche Amtskompetenz im Widerstreit der politischen Theorie von Thomas bis Wilhelm von Ockham, Spätmittelalter und Reformation. Neue Reihe 16 (Tübingen, 2000). [See reviews in Collectanea Francescana 72:1-2 (2002), 394-400
  • Archivum Franciscanum Historicum 94 (2001), 230-238]
  • H.H. Bleakley, ‘Some additional thoughts on Ockham’s right reason: an addendum to Coleman’, History of Political Thought 21:4 (2000), 565-605
  • Ellie Ragland, ‘The supposed nominalism of William of Ockham and the Lacanian real’, in: Medievalism and the Academy, II, ed. David D. Metzger, Studies in Medievalism, 10 (Cambridge, 2000), 92-103
  • Ludger Honnefelder, ‘Wilhelm von Ockham. Die Möglichkeit der Metaphysik’, in Philosophen des Mittelalters, ed. Theo Kobusch, 250-268
  • Robert Andrews, ‘The Defensorium Ockham: An edition’, Cahiers de l’Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin 71 (2000), 189-273
  • Robert Andrews, ‘The Defensorium Ockam: an edition’, Cahiers de l’Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin 71 (2000), 189-273
  • Sten Ebbesen, ‘A note on Ockham’s defender’, Cahiers de l’Institut du Moyen-Âge grec et latin 71 (2000), 275-277
  • Paola Müller, ‘Le ‘fallaciae in dictione’ in Guglielmo di Ockham’, Divus Thomas 103 (2000), 143-166
  • Holly Hamilton Bleakley, ‘Some additional thoughts on Ockham’s right reason: An Addendum to Coleman’, History of Political Thought 21 (2000), 565-605
  • Laurence Renault, ‘Guillaume d’Ockham et la distinction de la nature et de la surnature’, Revue Thomiste 109 (2001), 204-216
  • B. Töpfer, ‘Status innocentiae und Staatsentstehung bei Thomas von Aquino und Wilhelm von Ockham’, Mittellateinisches Jahrbuch 36 (2001), 113-129
  • Volker Leppin, ‘Ockham und die Prophetie. Beobachtungen zur Selbstwahrnehmung eines philosophischen Theologen’, Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie 48 (2001), 470-476
  • Francesco Sechi, Guglielmo d’Ockham. Premesse per la comprensione del suo pensiero politico-giuridico’, in: Multas per gentes. Studi in memoria di Enzo Cadoni (Sassari: Ed. Democratica Sarda, 2001), 337-353
  • André Goddu, ‘The impact of Ockham’s reading of the ‘Physics’ on the Mertonians aand Parisian Terminists’, Early Science and Medicine 6 (2001), 204-237
  • Girard J. Etzkorn, ‘Ockham at Avignon: his response to critics’, Franciscan Studies 59 (2001), 9-19
  • Guy Geltner, ‘Eden Regained: William of Ockham and the Franciscan Return to Paradise’, Franciscan Studies 59 (2001), 63-89
  • Matthias Kaufmann, ‘Gottes Allmacht und die Wahrheit modaler Sätze. Potentialität und Possibilität bei Wilhelm von Ockham’, in: Potentialität und Possibilität. Modalaussagen in der Geschichte der Metaphysik, ed. Thomas Buchheim, Corneille Henri Kneepkens & Kuno Lorenz (Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, 2001), 201-217
  • Mário Santiago de Carvalho, ‘Para la historia de la posibilidad y de la libertad. Juan Duns Escoto, Guillermo de Ockham y Enrique de Gante’, in: Idem, Estudios sobre Álvaro Pais e outros Franciscanos (séculos XIII-XV) (Lisbon, 2001), Chapter VII
  • Mário Santiago de Carvalho, ‘La teoria de la ‘suposición’ en la semántica ockhamista’, in: Idem, Estudios sobre Álvaro Pais e outros Franciscanos (séculos XIII-XV) (Lisbon, 2001), Chapter IX
  • Takashi Shogimen, ‘From disobedience to toleration: William of Ockham and the medieval discourse on fraternal correction’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 52 (2001), 599-622
  • Volker Leppin, ‘Ockham und die Prophetie. Beobachtungen zur Selbstwahrnehmung eines philosophischen Theologen’, Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie 48:1-2 (2001), 470-476
  • Christian Rode, ‘Sein oder Nichtsein. Hervaeus Natalis und Wilhelm von Ockham über den ens rationis’, in: Umbrüche: Historische Wendepunkte der Philosophie von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart. Festschrift für Kurt Flasch zu seinem 70. Geburtstag, ed. Klaus Kahnert & Burkhard Mojsisch (Amsterdam, 2001), 77-97
  • Sharon M. Kaaye & Robert M. Martin, On Ockham (Belmont CA: Wadsworth, 2001)
  • José Miguel López Cuétara, ‘Algunos conceptos filosóficos en Guillermo de Ockham’, Verdad y Vida 59 (2001), 535-540
  • Richard Gaskin, ‘Ockham’s mental language, connotation, and the inherence regress’, in: Ancient and medieval theories of intentionality, ed. Dominick Perler, Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, 76 (Leiden-New York-Boston: Brill, 2001), 227-263
  • Yiwei Zheng, ‘Ockham’s connotation theory and ontological elimination’, Journal of Philosophical Research 26 (2001), 623-634
  • Joël Biard, ‘Intention et presence: la notion de presentalitas au XIVe siècle’, in: Ancient and Medieval Theories of Intentionality, ed. Dominik Perler, Studien und Texte zur Geistesgeschichte des Mittelalters, 76 (Leiden: Brill, 2001), 265-282
  • Pedro Leite Júnior, O problema dos universais: a perspectiva de Boécio, Abelardo e Ockham, Filosofia, 162 (Porte Alegre: EDIPUCRS, 2001)
  • Fernando Domínguez Ruiz, Naturaleza y libertad en Guillermo de Ockham, Diss. (Pamplona, 2001)
  • Hubert Schröckner, Das Verhältnis der Allmacht Gottes zum Kontradiktionsprinzip nach Wilhelm von Ockham, Diss. (Munich, 2001)
  • Richard A. Lee Jr., ‘Being skeptical about skepticism: methodological themes concerning Ockham’s alleged skepticism’, Vivarium 39 (2001), 1-19
  • Marcin Karas, ‘Koncepcja czasu w Tractatus de praedestinatione Wilhelma Ockhama’, Acta Mediaevalia 15 (2002), 107-116 [Theory of time in Ockham’s Tractatus de Praedestinatione]
  • Dominik Perler, Theorien der Intentionalität im Mittelalter, Philosophische Abhandlungen, 82 (Frankfurt a.M: Klostermann, 2002). [a.o. Olivi, Dietrich von Freiburg, Duns Scotus, Aureol, Ockham, Wodeham]
  • André de Muralt, L’unité de la philosophie politique. De Scot, Occam et Suárez au liberalisme contemporain, Bibliothèque d’histoire de la philosophie (Paris: Vrin, 2002) [cf. Review by André Côté in Science et Esprit 56 (2004), 211-219]
  • Alfonso Flórez, La filosofía del lenguaje de Ockham. (Exposición critica e interpretación cognitiva) (Albolote (Granada) Comares – Bogotá: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, 2002)
  • Brian Tierney, L’idea dei diritti naturali. Diritti naturali, legge naturale e diritto canonico, 1150-1625, Collezione di testi e studi (Bologna: Il Mulino, 2002). [a.o. on Ockham]
  • Francisco J. Fortuny, ‘Guillermo de Ockham’, in: La filosofía medieval, ed. Francisco Bertelloni & Giannina Burlando, Enciclopedia Ibero-Americano de Filosofía (Madrid: Editorial Trotta, 2002), 217-236
  • A. Maurer, The Philosophy of Williamk of Ockham in the Light of its Principles, Reprint (Turnhout: Brepols – Toronto: PIMS, 2002)
  • Maria Gabriella Martini, ‘La verità scientifica negli stoici e in Ockham. Un accostamento possibile?’, Studi Francescani 99 (2002), 231-252
  • Ernesto Perini-Santos, ‘L’extension de la liste des modalités dans les commentaires du ‘Perihermeneias’ et des ‘Sophistici Elenchi’ de Guillaume d’Ockham’, Vivarium 40 (2002), 174-188
  • Aurélien Robert, ‘L’explication causale selon Guillaume d’Ockham’, Quaestio 2 (2002), 241-265
  • Marino Damiata, ‘Il Burleo ed Ockham’, Studi Francescani 99 (2002), 5-35
  • José Antonio de C.R. de Souza, ‘Guillermo de Ockham y el dualismo politico’, in: La filosofía medieval, ed. Francisco Bertelloni & Giannina Burlando (Enciclopedia Ibero-Americano de Filosofía (Madrid: Trotta, 2002), 263-284
  • Laurence Renault, ‘L’assimilation du connu au connaissant dans la tradition aristotélicienne et sa critique par Guillaume d’Ockham’, in: Le contemplateur et les idées. Modèles de la science divine, du néoplatonisme au XVIIIe siècle, ed. Olivier Boulnois et al. (Paris: Vrin, 2002), 171-183
  • Edith Dudley Sylla, ‘Creation and nature’, in: The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Philosophy, 171-195
  • Annabel S. Brett, ‘Political philosophy’, in: The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Philosophy, 176-299
  • Angelo Pellegrini, Guglielmo di Occam fra logica e assoluto (Bari: Edizioni Giuseppe Laterza, 2002)
  • Cyrille Michon, ‘Omniscience, liberté humaine et immutabilité divine, remarques à partir du ‘Tractatus’ de Guillaume d’Ockham’, in: Le contemplateur et les idées. Modèles de la science divine, du néoplatonisme au XVIIIe siècle, ed. Olivier Boulnois et al. (Paris: Vrin, 2002), 149-169
  • Volker Leppin, ‘Wilhelm von Ockham. Theologie zwischen Philosophie, Politik und prophetischen Anspruch’, in: Theologen des Mittelalters. Eine Einführung, ed. Ulrich Köpf (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2002), 182-196
  • Volker Leppin, ‘Vom Sinn des Jüngsten Gerichts. Beobachtungen zur Lehre von der ‘visio’ bei Johannes XXII. und Ockham’, in: Ende und Vollendung. Eschatologische Perspektiven im Mittelalter, ed. Jan A, Aertsen & Martin Pickavé, Miscellanea Mediaevalia, 29 (Berlin-New York: De Gruyter, 2002), 705-717
  • Günther Mensching, ‘Das Ende und der Wille Gottes. Teleologie und Eschatologie bei Wilhelm von Ockham’, in: Ende und Vollendung. Eschatologische Perspektiven im Mittelalter, ed. Jan A, Aertsen & Martin Pickavé, Miscellanea Mediaevalia, 29 (Berlin-New York: De Gruyter, 2002), 465-477
  • Lorenzo Vicente Burgoa, ‘Abstracción e intuición en Guillermo de Ockham o la encruijada entre el pensamiento medieval y la filosofía moderna’, Estudios Filosóficos 51 (2002), 223-256
  • Carolina J. Fernández, ‘Facticidad y legalidad en la teoría ockhamista de la propiedad’, Patristica et Mediaevalia 23 (2002), 65-101
  • Esteban Peña Eguren, ‘La relación entre razón y fe en Guillermo de Ockham. La necesaria economía en el desir sobre Dios’, Ciudad de Dios 215 (2002), 529-556
  • In-Kyu Song, Divine Foreknowledge and Necessity: An Ockhamist Response to the Dilemma of God’s Foreknowledge and Human Freedom (Landham MD – New York – Oxford: Oxford University Press of America, 2002)

Allan B. Wolter, Scotus and Ockham: Selected Essays (St. Bonaventure NY, 2003)

  • Dominik Perler, ‘Ockhams Tranformation der Transzendentalien’, in: Die Logik des Transzendentalen: Festschrift für Jan A. Aertsen zum 65. Geburtstag, ed. Martin Pickavé, Miscellanea Mediaevalia, 30 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2003), 361-382
  • Severin Valentinov Kitanov, ‘Displeasure in heaven, pleasure in hell: four Franciscan masters on the relationship between love and pleasure, and hatred and displeasure’, Traditio 58 (2003), 284-340
  • John Scott, ‘William of Ockham and the lawyers revisited’, in: Rhetoric and Renewal in the Latin West, 1100-1540, 169-182[ Ockham’s views on canon lawyers]
  • Annabel S. Brett, ‘Political Philosophy’, in: The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Philosophy, 176-299
  • Timothy B. Noone, ‘William of Ockham’, in: A Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages, ed. Jorge J.E. Gracia & Timothy B. Noone, Blackwell Companions to Philosophy, 24 (Oxford: Blackwell, 2003), 696-712
  • Hans Kraml & Gerhard Leibold, Wilhelm von Ockham, Zugänge zum Denken des Mittelalters, 1 (Münster: Aschendorff Verlag, 2003)
  • Hubert Schröcker, Das Verhältnis der Allmacht Gottes zum Kontradiktionsprinzip nach Wilhelm von Ockham, Münchener Universitätsschriften Kath.-Theol. Fakultät, Veröffentlichungen des Grabmann-Instituts, 49 (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 2003) [review in CF 75 (2005), 419-422]
  • Angelo Pellegrini, Guilielmo di Occam fra tempo ed eterno (Bari: Ed. Giuseppe Laterza, 2003)
  • Michael J. Cholbi, ‘Contingency and divine knowledge in Ockham’, American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 77:1 (2003), 81-91
  • Volker Leppin, Wilhelm von Ockham, Gelehrter, Streiter, Bettelmönch (Darmstadt, 2003)
  • Elzbieta Jung-Palczewska, ‘Krótkie kwestie teologiczne dwóch przedstawicieli szkoly franciszkánskiej XIV wieku – Piotra Aureoli i Wilhelma Ochama’, Przeglad Tomistyczny 9 (2003), 199-213
  • Claude Panaccio, Ockham on Concepts, Ashgate Studies in Medieval Philosophy(Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004)
  • David Strong, ‘The questions asked: the answers given: Langland, Scotus, and Ockham’, Chaucer Review 38:3 (2004), 255-275
  • Martin Lenz, ‘Oratio Mentalis und Mentalesisch. Ein spätmittelalterlicher Blick auf die gegenwärtige Philosophie des Geistes’, in: Herbst des Mittelalters. Fragen zur bewertung des 14. und 15. Jahrhunderts, ed. Jan A. Aertsen & Martin Pickavé, Miscellanea Mediaevalia, 31 (Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2004), 105-130
  • Christoph Flüeller, ‘Acht Fragen über die Herrschaft des Papstes. Lupold von Bebenburg und Wilhelm von Ockham im Kontext’, in: Politische Reflexion in der Welt des späten Mittelalters/Political Thought in the Ages of Scholasticism. Essays in Honour of Jürgen Miethke, ed. Martin Kaufhold, Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions: History, Culture, Religion, Ideas, 103 (Leiden: Brill, 2004), 225-246
  • Volker Leppin, ‘Biographie und Theologie am Beispiel Wilhelms von Ockham’, Archa Verbi. Yearbook for the Study of Medieval Theology 1 (2004), 128-142
  • Mirko Breitenstein, “Vos enim in libertatem vocatis estis’. Beobachtungen zur Konzeption politischer Freiheit im ‘Dialogus’ des Wilhalm von Ockham’, in: Studia Monastica. Beiträge zum klösterlichen Leben im christlichen Abendland während des Mittelalters, ed. Reinhardt Butz & Jörg Oberste, Vita regularis, 22 (Münster: LIT Verlag, 2004), 151-170
  • Joshua Rayman, ‘Ockham’s theory of natural signification’, Franciscan Studies 63 (2005), 289-323
  • Jürgen Miethke, Ai confronti del potere. Il dibattito sulla potestas papale da Tommaso d’Aquino a Guglielmo d’Ockham, Fonti e ricerche, 19 (Padua: Efr-Editrici Francescane, 2005)
  • Takashi Shogimen, ‘William of Ockham and conceptions of heresy, c. 1250-c. 1350’, in: Heresy in Transition. Transforming Ideas of Heresy in Medieval and Early Modern Europe, ed. Ian Hunter, John Christian Laursen & Cary J. Nederman, Catholic Christendom, 1300-1700 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005)
  • Takashi Shogimen, ‘Defending Christian fellowship: William of Ockham and the crisis of the medieval church’, History of Political Thought 26:4 (2005), 607-624
  • Thomas M. Osborne Jr., ‘Ockham as a divine-command theorist’, Religious Studies 41:1 (2005), 1-22
  • Mikko Yrjönsuuri, ‘William Ockham and mental language’, in: Representation and Objects of Thought in Medieval Philosophy, Ashgate Studies in Medieval Philosophy (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007).


17 1288 1323 England 1347 Munich Germany


  1. ^ Emden, A biographical register of the University of Oxford 3:1384
  2. ^ The view that Ockham was resident in London between 1321 and 1324 was first proposed by Father Gedeon Gal in the introduction to the critical edition of Ockham's Summa logicae in 1974 (Introduction to Ockham, Summa logicae (Opera Philosophica 1), ed. Ph. Boehner,G. Gal, and S. Brown. St. Bonaventure 1974, but was challenged by Courtenay, 1990. Courtenay regards the 'London period' as probable, but far from certain.
  3. ^ Adam de Wodeham, Lectura Secunda, ed. R. Wood and G. Gal I 12-16
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ [2]