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The work begins by analyzing simple ''categoric'' propositions, and draws a series of basic conclusions on the routine issues of classifying and defining basic linguistic forms, such as ''simple terms'' and ''propositions'', nouns and verbs, [[negation]], the ''quantity'' of simple propositions (primitive roots of the [[quantifier]]s in modern symbolic logic), investigations on the ''excluded middle'' (what to Aristotle isn't applicable to future tense propositions — the [[Problem of future contingents]]), and on ''[[Modal logic | modal proposition]]s''.
 
The work begins by analyzing simple ''categoric'' propositions, and draws a series of basic conclusions on the routine issues of classifying and defining basic linguistic forms, such as ''simple terms'' and ''propositions'', nouns and verbs, [[negation]], the ''quantity'' of simple propositions (primitive roots of the [[quantifier]]s in modern symbolic logic), investigations on the ''excluded middle'' (what to Aristotle isn't applicable to future tense propositions — the [[Problem of future contingents]]), and on ''[[Modal logic | modal proposition]]s''.
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The first five chapters deal with the terms that form propositions.  Chapters 6 and 7 deal with the relationship between affirmative, negative, universal and particular propositions.  These relationships are the basis of the well-known [[Square of opposition]].  The distinction between universal and particular propositions is the basis of modern [[quantification theory]].  The last three chapters deal with [[linguistic modality|modalities]].  Chapter 9 is famous for the discussion of the [[Problem of future contingents | sea-battle]].  (If it is true that there will be a sea-battle tomorrow, then it is true ''today'' that there will be a sea-battle.  Thus a sea-battle is apparently unavoidable, and thus necessary).
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The first five chapters deal with the terms that form propositions.  Chapters 6 and 7 deal with the relationship between affirmative, negative, universal and particular propositions.  These relationships are the basis of the well-known [[Square of opposition]].  The distinction between universal and particular propositions is the basis of modern [[quantification theory]].  Some of the later chapters deal with modal propositions, which assert or deny possibility or impossibility.  Chapter 9 is famous for the discussion of the [[Problem of future contingents | sea-battle]].  (If it is true that there will be a sea-battle tomorrow, then it is true ''today'' that there will be a sea-battle.  Thus a sea-battle is apparently unavoidable, and thus necessary).
    
''De Interpretatione'' is (the second) part of the ''[[Organon]]'', Aristotle's collected works on [[logic]].
 
''De Interpretatione'' is (the second) part of the ''[[Organon]]'', Aristotle's collected works on [[logic]].
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''Chapter 10''. Aristotle enumerates the affirmations and denials that can be assigned when 'indefinite' terms such as 'unjust' are included.  He makes a distinction that was to become important later, between the use of the verb 'is' as a mere copula or 'third element', as in the sentence 'a man is wise', and as a predicate signifying existence, as in 'a man is [i.e. exists]'.
 
''Chapter 10''. Aristotle enumerates the affirmations and denials that can be assigned when 'indefinite' terms such as 'unjust' are included.  He makes a distinction that was to become important later, between the use of the verb 'is' as a mere copula or 'third element', as in the sentence 'a man is wise', and as a predicate signifying existence, as in 'a man is [i.e. exists]'.
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''Chapter 11'' Some propositions appear to be simple which are really composite.  A truly single proposition the name of the subject combines to form a unity.  Thus 'two-footed domesticated animal' means the same thing as a 'man', and the three predicates combine to form a unity.  But in the term 'a white walking man' the three predicates do not combine to form a unity of this sort.
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''Chapter 12''.  This chapter considers the mutual relation of ''modal'' propositions: affirmations and denials which assert or deny possibility or contingency, impossibility or necessity.
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''Chapter 13''.  The relation between such propositions.  Logical consequences follow from this arrangement.  For example, from the proposition 'it is possible' it follows that it is contingent, that is is not impossible, or from the proposition 'it cannot be the case' there follows 'it is necessarily not the case'.
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''Chapter 14''.  Is there an affirmative proposition corresponding to every denial?  For example, is the proposition 'every man is unjust' an affirmation (since it seems to affirm being unjust of every man) or is it merely a negative (since it denies justice).
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<div style="overflow:auto;height:1px;">
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[[Keyword:=De Interpretatione]]
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[[Keyword:=On Interpretation]]
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[[Author:=Aristotle]]
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[[Country Name:=Greece]]
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[[Keyword:=Aristotle enumerates the affirmations and denials]]
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[[Keyword:=Indefinite terms]]
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[[Keyword:=Unjust]]
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[[Keyword:=Contradictories]]
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[[Book Title:=Organon]]
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</div>
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<br>
    
==See also==
 
==See also==
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* [[Directory:Logic Museum/Commentaries on the Perihermenias|Commentaries on the Perihermenias]]
    
==External links==
 
==External links==

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