Engineering is the construction of designs and application of physical principles for the creation and improvement of useful devices, objects, and machines.
Engineering has numerous subdisciplines including aeronautical engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering, materials engineering, and mechanical engineering. Many universities also offer programs in engineering physics, which is often a foundation for obtaining the Ph.D in fields such as astronomy and physics. In addition to these traditional subdisciplines, interdisciplinary fields have developed in the late 20th century including biomedical, biological, environmental, and computer engineering.
American universities with leading colleges of engineering include the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Illinois, the Georgia Institute of Technology, Purdue University, Cornell University, the University of Michigan, and the California Institute of Technology.