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Lance Armstrong

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Lance Edward Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson, September 18, 1971) is an American former professional road racing cyclist. Armstrong had won the Tour de France a record seven consecutive times between 1999 and 2005, but in 2012 he was disqualified from all his results since August 1998 for using and distributing performance-enhancing drugs and was banned from professional cycling for life.[1] Armstrong did not appeal the decision to the Court of Arbitration for Sport.[2] He has repeatedly denied ever doping.[3][4]

At 16, Armstrong began competing as a triathlete and became a national sprint-course triathlon champion in 1989 and 1990. In 1992, Armstrong began his career as a professional cyclist with the Motorola team. He had notable success between 1993 and 1996, including the 1993 World Championship, Clásica de San Sebastián in 1995, an overall victory in the penultimate Tour DuPont and a handful of stage victories in Europe, including the stage to Limoges in the Tour de France.

In October 1996, he was diagnosed with testicular cancer that had spread to his brain and lungs. His cancer treatments included brain and testicular surgery and extensive chemotherapy. In February 1997, he was declared cancer-free and the same year he founded the Lance Armstrong Foundation for cancer support. By January 1998, Armstrong had renewed serious cycling training, having signed a new racing contract with US Postal. He was a member of the US Postal/Discovery team between 1998 and 2005. On July 24, 2005, Armstrong retired from racing at the end of the 2005 Tour de France, but returned to competitive cycling with the Astana team in January 2009 and finished third in the 2009 Tour de France. Between 2010 and 2011, he raced with the UCI ProTeam he helped found, Team Radio Shack.

On February 16, 2011, he announced his retirement from competitive cycling, while facing a US federal investigation into doping allegations. In February 2012, he returned to triathlon, competing as a professional in several events. In June 2012, the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) charged Armstrong with having used illicit performance-enhancing drugs,[5] and in August it announced a lifetime ban from competition, which applies in all sports which follow the World Anti Doping Agency code, as well as the stripping of all titles won since August 1998. The USADA report stated that Armstrong enforced "the most sophisticated, professionalized and successful doping program that sport has ever seen".[6] On October 22, 2012, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the sport's governing body, announced its decision to accept USADA's findings regarding Armstrong.[7]

Career

Early career

Armstrong was born on September 18, 1971, at Methodist Hospital in Plano, Texas, north of Dallas.[8] At the age of 12 he started racing in his sporting career as a swimmer at the City of Plano Swim Club and finished fourth in Texas state 1,500-meter freestyle. He stopped swimming-only races after seeing a poster for a junior triathlon, called the Iron Kids Triathlon, which he won at age 13.[9]

In the 1987–1988 Tri-Fed/Texas ("Tri-Fed" was the former name of USA Triathlon), Armstrong was ranked the number-one triathlete in the 19-and-under group; second place was Chann McRae, who became a US Postal Service cycling teammate and the 2002 USPRO national champion. Armstrong's total points in 1987 as an amateur were better than those of five professionals ranked higher than he was that year. At 16, Lance Armstrong became a professional triathlete and became national sprint-course triathlon champion in 1989 and 1990 at 18 and 19, respectively.[10]

Motorola: 1992–96

In 1992 Armstrong turned professional with the Motorola Cycling Team, the successor of 7-Eleven team. In 1993, Armstrong won 10 one-day events and stage races, but his breakthrough victory was the UCI Road World Championship held in Norway. Prior to his World's win, he took his first win at the Tour de France, in the stage from Châlons-sur-Marne to Verdun. He was 97th in the general classification when he retired after stage 12.

He also collected the Thrift Drug Triple Crown of Cycling: the Thrift Drug Classic in Pittsburgh, the K-Mart West Virginia Classic, and the CoreStates USPRO national championship in Philadelphia.

In 1994, he again won the Thrift Drug Classic and came second in the Tour DuPont in the United States. His successes in Europe occurred when he placed second in Liège–Bastogne–Liège and the Clásica de San Sebastián, where just two years before, he had finished in last place as his first all-pro event in Europe.

He won the Clásica de San Sebastián in 1995, followed by an overall victory in the penultimate Tour DuPont and a handful of stage victories in Europe, including the stage to Limoges in the Tour de France, three days after the death of his teammate Fabio Casartelli, who crashed on the descent of the Col de Portet d'Aspet on the 15th stage.

Armstrong's successes were much the same in 1996. He became the first American to win the La Flèche Wallonne and again won the Tour DuPont. However, he was able to compete for only five days in the Tour de France. In the 1996 Olympic Games, he finished 6th in the time trial and 12th in the road race. In August 1996 following the Leeds Classic, Armstrong signed a 2-year, $2m deal with the French Cofidis Cycling Team. Joining him in signing contracts with the French team were teammates Frankie Andreu and Laurent Madouas. Two months later, in October 1996, he was diagnosed with testicular cancer.

Cancer

On October 2, 1996, then aged 25, Armstrong was diagnosed as having stage three (advanced) testicular cancer (embryonal carcinoma).[11] The cancer spread to his lungs, abdomen and brain. On his first visit to a urologist in Austin, Texas, for his cancer symptoms, he was coughing up blood and had a large, painful testicular tumor. Immediate surgery and chemotherapy saved his life. Armstrong had an orchiectomy to remove his diseased testicle. After his surgery, his doctor said that he had less than a 40% survival chance.[12]

The standard chemotherapeutic regimen for the treatment of this type of cancer is a cocktail of the drugs bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (or Platinol) (BEP). Armstrong, however, chose an alternative, etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin (VIP), to avoid the lung toxicity associated with bleomycin.[12] This decision may have saved his cycling career. His primary treatment was received at the Indiana University (IU), Indianapolis, Medical Center, where Lawrence Einhorn had pioneered the use of cisplatinum to treat testicular cancer. His primary oncologist there was Craig Nichols.[12] His brain tumors were surgically removed by Scott A. Shapiro, MD, Professor of Neurosurgery at Indiana University and Resident Director, and were found to contain extensive necrosis.[13]

According to Armstrong's first book, Shapiro convinced him that he was the right neurosurgeon for him by saying: "You'll have to convince me you know what you're doing," said Armstrong. "Look, I've done a large number of these," Shapiro said, "I've never had anyone die, and I've never made anyone worse." "Yeah, but why should you be the person who operates on my head?" Armstrong responded. "Because as good as you are at cycling" – he paused – "I'm a lot better at brain surgery".[12]

Armstrong's last chemotherapy treatment was received on December 13, 1996. In February of 1997, he was declared cancer-free, but shortly afterward came the news that his contract with the Cofidis team had been cancelled. Again it was a former boss at Subaru Montgomery who came to the rescue, offering him a contract with the US Postal team on a salary of $200,000 a year. By January 1998, Armstrong was already engaged in serious training for racing, moving to Europe with the team. A pivotal week (April 1998) in his comeback was one he spent training in the very challenging Appalachian terrain around Boone, North Carolina, with his racing friend Bob Roll.[12]

US Postal/Discovery: 1998–2005

Before his cancer treatment, Armstrong had won two Tour de France stages. In 1993, he won the eighth stage and in 1995; he took stage 18 in honor of teammate Fabio Casartelli who crashed and died on stage 15. Armstrong dropped out of the 1996 Tour after the fifth stage after becoming ill, a few months before his diagnosis.

Armstrong finishing third in Sète, taking over the Yellow Jersey at Grand Prix Midi Libre.

Armstrong's cycling comeback began in 1998 when he finished fourth in the Vuelta a España. In 1999 he won the Tour de France, including four stages. He beat the second rider, Alex Zülle, by 7 minutes 37 seconds. However, the absence of Jan Ullrich (injury) and Marco Pantani (drug allegations) meant Armstrong had not yet proven himself against the biggest names. Stage wins included the prologue, stage eight, an individual time trial in Metz, an Alpine stage on stage nine, and the second individual time trial on stage 19.

In 2000, Ullrich and Pantani returned to challenge Armstrong. The race that began a six-year rivalry between Ullrich and Armstrong ended in victory for Armstrong by 6 minutes 2 seconds over Ullrich. Armstrong took one stage in the 2000 Tour, the second individual time trial on stage 19. In 2001, Armstrong again took top honors, beating Ullrich by 6 minutes 44 seconds. In 2002, Ullrich did not participate due to suspension, and Armstrong won by seven minutes over Joseba Beloki.

Armstrong riding the prologue of the 2004 Tour de France.

The pattern returned in 2003, Armstrong taking first place and Ullrich second. Only a minute and a second separated the two at the end of the final day in Paris. U.S. Postal won the team time trial on stage four, while Armstrong took stage 15, despite having been knocked off on the ascent to Luz Ardiden, the final climb, when a spectator's bag caught his right handlebar. Ullrich waited for him, which brought Ullrich fair-play honors.[14]

In 2004, Armstrong finished first, 6 minutes 19 seconds ahead of German Andreas Klöden. Ullrich was fourth, a further 2 minutes 31 seconds behind. Armstrong won a personal-best five individual stages, plus the team time trial. He became the first biker since Gino Bartali in 1948 to win three consecutive mountain stages; 15, 16, and 17.

The individual time trial on stage 16 up Alpe d'Huez was won in style by Armstrong as he passed Ivan Basso on the way despite having set out two minutes after the Italian. He won sprint finishes from Basso in stages 13 and 15 and made up a significant gap in the last 250 m to nip Klöden at the line in stage 17. He won the final individual time trial, stage 19, to complete his personal record of stage wins.

Armstrong wearing the yellow jersey at the 2005 Tour de France.

In 2005, Armstrong was beaten by David Zabriskie in the Stage 1 time trial by two seconds, despite having passed Ullrich on the road. His Discovery Channel team won the team time trial, while Armstrong won the final individual time trial. In the mountain stages, Armstrong's lead was attacked multiple times mostly by Ivan Basso, but also by T-mobile leaders Jan Ullrich, Andreas Kloden and Alexandre Vinokourov and former teammate Levi Leipheimer. But still, the American champion handled them well, maintained his lead and, on some occasions, increased it. To complete his record-breaking feat, Armstrong crossed the line on the Champs-Élysées on July 24 to win his seventh consecutive Tour, finishing 4m 40s ahead of Basso, with Ullrich third. Another record achieved that year was that Armstrong completed the tour at the highest pace in the race's history: his average speed over the whole tour was 41.7 km/h(26 mph).[15]

On July 24, 2005, Armstrong announced his retirement from professional cycling.[16]

Comeback

Astana: 2009

See also: 2009 Astana season

Armstrong announced on September 9, 2008, that he would return to pro cycling with the express goal of participating in the 2009 Tour de France.[17][18] VeloNews reported that Armstrong would race for no salary or bonuses and would post his internally tested blood results online.[18]

Armstrong riding for Astana on Stage 17 of the 2009 Tour de France.

Australian ABC radio reported on September 24, 2008, that Armstrong would compete in the UCI Tour Down Under through Adelaide and surrounding areas in January 2009. UCI rules say a cyclist has to be in an anti-doping program for six months before an event, but UCI allowed Armstrong to compete.[19] He had to retire from the 2009 Vuelta a Castilla y León during the first stage after crashing in a rider pileup in Baltanás, Spain, and breaking his collarbone.[20] Armstrong flew back to Austin, Texas, for corrective surgery, which was successful, and was back training on a bicycle within four days of his operation.[21]

On April 10, 2009, a controversy emerged between the French anti-doping agency AFLD and Armstrong and his team manager, Johan Bruyneel, stemming from a March 17, 2009, encounter with an AFLD anti-doping official who visited Armstrong after a training ride in Beaulieu-sur-Mer. When the official arrived, Armstrong claims he asked—and was granted—permission to take a shower while Bruyneel checked the official's credentials. In late April, the AFLD cleared Armstrong of any wrongdoing.[22] Armstrong returned to racing after his collarbone injury at the Tour of the Gila in New Mexico on April 29.[23]

On July 7, in the fourth stage of the 2009 Tour de France, Armstrong narrowly failed to win the yellow jersey after his Astana team won the team time trial. His Astana team won the 39 km lap of Montpellier but Armstrong ended up just over two tenths of a second (0.22) outside of Fabian Cancellara's overall lead.[24] Armstrong finished the 2009 Tour de France in third place overall, 5:24 behind the overall winner, his Astana teammate Alberto Contador.

Team RadioShack: 2010–11

On July 21, 2009, Armstrong announced that he would return to the Tour de France in 2010.[25] RadioShack was named as the main sponsor for Armstrong's 2010 team, named Team RadioShack.[26][27] Armstrong made his 2010 season debut at the Tour Down Under where he finished 25th out of the 127 riders who completed the race. He made his European season debut at the 2010 Vuelta a Murcia finishing in seventh place overall. Armstrong was also set to compete in several classics such as the Milan – San Remo, Amstel Gold Race, Liège–Bastogne–Liège, and the Tour of Flanders, but bouts with gastroenteritis forced his withdrawal from three of the four races.[28]

Armstrong returned to the United States in mid-April to compete in the Tour of Gila and May's Tour of California, both as preparation for the Tour de France. However, he crashed outside Visalia early in stage 5 of the Tour of California and had to withdraw from the race.[29] He showed fine shape after recovering from the Tour of California crash, placing second in the Tour of Switzerland and third in the Tour of Luxembourg.

On June 28, Armstrong announced via Twitter that the 2010 edition would be his final Tour de France.[30] Armstrong put in an impressive performance in the Tour de France prologue TT, finishing third, but was plagued by crashes in later stages that put him out of GC contention, especially a serious crash in stage 8. He rallied for the brutal Pyreneean stage 16, working as a key player in a successful break that included teammate Chris Horner. He finished his last tour in 23rd place, 39 minutes 20 seconds behind former winner Alberto Contador.[31] He was also a key rider in helping Team RadioShack win the team competition, beating Caisse d'Epargne by 9 minutes, 15 seconds.

In October, he announced the end of his international career after the Tour Down Under in January 2011. He stated that after January 2011, he will race only in the U.S. with the Radioshack domestic team.[32]

Armstrong announced his retirement from competitive cycling 'for good' on February 16, 2011, while still facing a US federal investigation into doping allegations.[33][34]

Physical attributes

Armstrong has recorded an aerobic capacity of 83.8 mL/kg/min (VO2 max),[35][36] much higher than the average person (40–50), but lower than some other Tour De France winners, such as Miguel Indurain (88.0, although reports exist that Indurain tested at 92–94) and Greg LeMond (92.5).[37] At his peak, he had a resting heart rate of 32–34 beats per minute (bpm) with a maximum heart rate of 201 bpm.[38]

Collaboration of sponsors

Armstrong revolutionized the support behind his well-funded teams, asking sponsors and suppliers to contribute and act as part of the team.[39] For example, rather than having the frame, handlebars, and tires designed and developed by separate companies with little interaction, his teams adopted a Formula One relationship with sponsors and suppliers named "F-One",[40] taking full advantage of the combined resources of several organizations working in close communication. The team, Trek, Nike, AMD, Bontrager (a Trek company), Shimano, Sram, Giro and Oakley, collaborated for an array of products.

Family and personal life

Armstrong was born to Linda Gayle (née Mooneyham), a secretary, and Eddie Charles Gunderson, a route manager for The Dallas Morning News. His great-grandfather was the son of Norwegian immigrants.[41] He was named after Lance Rentzel, a Dallas Cowboys wide receiver. His parents divorced when Lance was two and his father has two children from another relationship. His mother later married Terry Keith Armstrong, a wholesale salesman, who adopted Lance in 1974. Armstrong refused to meet his birth father.[42]

Armstrong (center) on the set of College GameDay during the 2006 UT football season.

Armstrong met Kristin Richard in June 1997. They married on May 1, 1998 and had three children: Luke David, born October 1999, and twins Isabelle Rose and Grace Elisabeth, born November 2001. The pregnancy was possible through sperm Armstrong banked three years earlier, prior to chemotherapy and surgery.[43] The couple filed for divorce in September 2003. At Armstrong's request, his children flew in for the Tour de France podium ceremony in 2005, where Luke helped his father hoist the trophy, while his daughters (in yellow dresses) held the stuffed lion mascot and bouquet of yellow flowers.

Armstrong began dating singer-songwriter Sheryl Crow in late 2003 and revealed their relationship in January 2004. The couple announced their engagement in September 2005 and their split in February 2006.

In December 2008, Armstrong announced that his girlfriend, Anna Hansen, was pregnant with his child. The couple started dating in July 2008 after meeting through Armstrong's charity work. Although it was believed that Armstrong could no longer father children, after having undergone chemotherapy for testicular cancer, this child was conceived naturally.[44] The baby boy, Maxwell Edward Armstrong, was born in 2009 in Aspen, Colorado. Armstrong announced the birth via Twitter.[45] Armstrong has become a popular Twitter user, with 3,385,486 followers on April 10, 2012. [46] In April 2010, Armstrong, using Twitter, announced that Anna Hansen was having his fifth child. Olivia Marie Armstrong was born in October 2010.[47]

Armstrong owns homes in Austin, Texas, and Aspen, Colorado, as well as a ranch in the Texas Hill Country.[48]

History of allegations of doping

For much of his career, Armstrong faced persistent allegations of doping.[49] Armstrong has denied all such allegations, often claiming that he never had any positive test in the approximately 600 drug tests he's taken over his cycling career.[50]

Armstrong has been criticised for his disagreements with outspoken opponents of doping such as Paul Kimmage[51][52] and Christophe Bassons.[53][54] Bassons was a rider for Festina at the time of the Festina Affair and was widely reported by teammates as being the only rider on the team not to be taking performance enhancing drugs. Bassons wrote a number of articles for a French newspaper during the 1999 Tour de France which made references to doping in the peloton. Subsequently, Armstrong had an altercation with Bassons during the 1999 Tour de France where Bassons said Armstrong rode up alongside on the Alpe d'Huez stage to tell him "it was a mistake to speak out the way I (Bassons) do and he (Armstrong) asked why I was doing it. I told him that I'm thinking of the next generation of riders. Then he said 'Why don't you leave, then?'"[55]

Armstrong confirmed the story. On the main evening news on TF1, a national television station, Armstrong said: "His accusations aren't good for cycling, for his team, for me, for anybody. If he thinks cycling works like that, he's wrong and he would be better off going home".[56] Kimmage, a professional cyclist in the 1980s who later became a sports journalist, referred to Armstrong as a "cancer in cycling".[54] He also asked Armstrong questions in relation to his "admiration for dopers" at a press conference at the Tour of California in 2009, provoking a scathing reaction from Armstrong.[54] This spat continued and is exemplified by Kimmage's articles in The Irish Independent.[57]

Armstrong has continually denied using illegal performance-enhancing drugs and has described himself as the most tested athlete in the world.[58] From his return to cycling in the fall of 2008 through March 2009, Armstrong claims to have submitted to 24 unannounced drug tests by various anti-doping authorities.[59][60]

Working with Michele Ferrari

Armstrong was criticized for working with controversial trainer Michele Ferrari. Ferrari claimed that he was introduced to Lance by Eddy Merckx in 1995.[61] Greg LeMond described himself as "devastated" on hearing of them working together, while Tour de France organizer Jean-Marie Leblanc said, "I am not happy the two names are mixed."[62] Following Ferrari's later-overturned conviction for "sporting fraud" and "abuse of the medical profession", Armstrong claimed he suspended his professional relationship with him, saying that he had "zero tolerance for anyone convicted of using or facilitating the use of performance-enhancing drugs" and denying that Ferrari had ever "suggested, prescribed or provided me with any performance-enhancing drugs."[63]

Though Ferrari was banned from practicing medicine with cyclists by the Italian Cycling Federation, according to Italian law enforcement authorities, Armstrong met with Ferrari as recently as 2010 in a country outside of Italy.[64] According to Cycling News, "USADA reveals an intimate role played by Dr. Michele Ferrari in masterminding Armstrong's Tour de France success". According to the USADA report, Armstrong paid Ferrari over a million dollars in payments from 1996 to 2006, countering Armstrong's claim that he severed his professional relationship with Ferrari in 2004. The report also includes numerous eyewitness accounts of Ferrari injecting Armstrong with EPO on a number of occasions.[65]

L.A. Confidentiel - 2004

Main article: L.A. Confidentiel

In 2004, reporters Pierre Ballester and David Walsh published a book alleging Armstrong had used performance-enhancing drugs (L.A. Confidentiel – Les secrets de Lance Armstrong). Another figure in the book, Steve Swart, claims he and other riders, including Armstrong, began using drugs in 1995 while members of the Motorola team, a claim denied by other team members.[66][67]

Among the allegations in the book were claims by Armstrong's former masseuse Emma O'Reilly that a backdated prescription for cortisone had been produced in 1999 to avoid a positive test. A 1999 urine sample at the Tour de France showed traces of corticosteroid. A medical certificate showed he used an approved cream for saddle sores which contained the substance.[68] O'Reilly said she heard team officials worrying about Armstrong's positive test for steroids during the Tour. She said: "They were in a panic, saying: 'What are we going to do? What are we going to do?'".[69]

According to O'Reilly, the solution was to get one of their compliant doctors to issue a pre-dated prescription for a steroid-based ointment to combat saddle sores. O'Reilly said she would have known if Armstrong had saddle sores as she would have administered any treatment for it. O'Reilly said that Armstrong told her: "Now, Emma, you know enough to bring me down." O'Reilly said on other occasions she was asked to dispose of used syringes for Armstrong and pick up strange parcels for the team.[70]

Allegations in the book were reprinted in the UK newspaper The Sunday Times in a story by deputy sports editor Alan English in June 2004. Armstrong sued for libel, and the paper settled out of court after a High Court judge in a pre-trial ruling stated that the article "meant accusation of guilt and not simply reasonable grounds to suspect."[71] The newspaper's lawyers issued the statement: "The Sunday Times has confirmed to Mr. Armstrong that it never intended to accuse him of being guilty of taking any performance-enhancing drugs and sincerely apologized for any such impression." The same authors (Pierre Ballester and David Walsh) subsequently published "L.A. Official" and "Le Sale Tour" (The Dirty Trick), further pressing their claims that Armstrong used performance-enhancing drugs throughout his career.

On March 31, 2005, Mike Anderson filed a brief[72] in Travis County District Court in Texas, as part of a legal battle following his termination in November 2004 as an employee of Armstrong. Anderson worked for Armstrong for two years as a personal assistant. In the brief, Anderson claimed that he discovered a box of androstenone while cleaning a bathroom in Armstrong's apartment in Girona, Spain.[73] Androstenone is not on the list of banned drugs. Anderson stated in a subsequent deposition that he had no direct knowledge of Armstrong using a banned substance. Armstrong denied the claim and issued a counter-suit.[74] The two men reached an out-of-court settlement in November 2005; the terms of the agreement were not disclosed.[75]

In November 2012, Times Newspapers republished all of David Walsh's articles as well as the original LA Confidential article by Alan English in a book "Lanced: The shaming of Lance Armstrong" [76] The Times are said to be considering taking action to recoup monies from Armstrong in relation to the settlement and court costs.[77]

In December 2012 the London Sunday Times filed suit against Armstrong for $1.5 million. In its suit, the paper is seeking a return of the original settlement, plus interest and the cost of defending the original case. [Ref] Associated Press, "Sunday Times suing Armstrong", Japan Times, 25 December 2012, p. 15.

Tour de France urine tests - 2005

On August 23, 2005, L'Équipe, a major French daily sports newspaper, reported on its front page under the headline "le mensonge Armstrong" ("The Armstrong Lie") that 6 urine samples taken from the cyclist during the prologue and five stages of the 1999 Tour de France, frozen and stored since at "Laboratoire national de dépistage du dopage de Châtenay-Malabry" (LNDD), had tested positive for erythropoietin (EPO) in recent retesting conducted as part of a research project into EPO testing methods.[78][79]

Armstrong immediately replied on his website, saying, "Unfortunately, the witch hunt continues and tomorrow's article is nothing short of tabloid journalism. The paper even admits in its own article that the science in question here is faulty and that I have no way to defend myself. They state: 'There will therefore be no counter-exam nor regulatory prosecutions, in a strict sense, since defendant's rights cannot be respected.' I will simply restate what I have said many times: I have never taken performance enhancing drugs."[80]

In October 2005, in response to calls from the International Olympic Committee and the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for an independent investigation, the UCI appointed Dutch lawyer Emile Vrijman to investigate the handling of urine tests by the French national anti-doping laboratory, LNDD. Vrijman was head of the Dutch anti-doping agency for ten years; since then he has worked as a defense attorney defending high-profile athletes against doping charges.[81] Vrijman's report cleared Armstrong because of improper handling and testing.[82][83] The report said tests on urine samples were conducted improperly and fell so short of scientific standards that it was "completely irresponsible" to suggest they "constitute evidence of anything."[84]

The recommendation of the commission's report was no disciplinary action against any rider on the basis of LNDD research. It also called upon the WADA and LNDD to submit themselves to an investigation by an outside independent authority.[85] The IOC Ethics Commission subsequently censured Dick Pound, the President of WADA and a member of the IOC, for his statements in the media that suggested wrongdoing by Armstrong.

In April 2009, Michael Ashenden said that "the LNDD absolutely had no way of knowing athlete identity from the sample they're given. They have a number on them, but that's never linked to an athlete's name. The only group that had both the number and the athlete's name is the federation, in this case it was the UCI." He added "There was only two conceivable ways that synthetic EPO could've gotten into those samples. One, is that Lance Armstrong used EPO during the '99 Tour. The other way it could've got in the urine was if, as Lance Armstrong seems to believe, the laboratory spiked those samples. Now, that's an extraordinary claim, and there's never ever been any evidence the laboratory has ever spiked an athlete's sample, even during the Cold War, where you would've thought there was a real political motive to frame an athlete from a different country. There's never been any suggestion that it happened."[86]

Ashenden's statements are at odds with the findings of the Vrijman report. "According to Mr. Ressiot, the manner in which the LNDD had structured the results table of its report – i.e. listing the sequence of each of the batches, as well as the exact number of urine samples per batch, in the same (chronological) order as the stages of the 1999 Tour de France they were collected at – was already sufficient to allow him to determine the exact stage these urine samples referred to and subsequently the identity of the riders who were tested at that stage." The Vrijman report also says "Le Monde of July 21 and 23, 1999 reveal that the press knew the contents of original doping forms of the 1999 Tour de France".[85]

SCA Promotions case: 2005

In June 2006, French newspaper Le Monde reported claims by Betsy and Frankie Andreu during a deposition that Armstrong had admitted using performance-enhancing drugs to his physician just after brain surgery in 1996. The Andreus' testimony was related to litigation between Armstrong and SCA Promotions, a Texas company attempting to withhold a $5-million bonus; this was settled out of court with SCA paying Armstrong and Tailwind Sports $7.5 million, to cover the $5-million bonus plus interest and lawyers' fees. The testimony stated "And so the doctor asked him a few questions, not many, and then one of the questions he asked was... have you ever used any performance-enhancing drugs? And Lance said yes. And the doctor asked, what were they? And Lance said, growth hormone, cortisone, EPO, steroids and testosterone."[87]

Armstrong suggested Betsy Andreu may have been confused by possible mention of his post-operative treatment which included steroids and EPO that are taken to counteract wasting and red-blood-cell-destroying effects of intensive chemotherapy.[88] The Andreus' allegation was not supported by any of the eight other people present, including Armstrong's doctor Craig Nichols,[89] or his medical history. According to Greg LeMond (who has been embroiled with his own disputes with Armstrong), he (LeMond) had a recorded conversation,[90] the transcript of which was reviewed by National Public Radio (NPR), with Stephanie McIlvain (Armstrong's contact at Oakley Inc.) in which she said of Armstrong's alleged admission 'You know, I was in that room. I heard it.' However, McIlvain has contradicted LeMond allegations on the issue and denied under oath that the incident in question ever occurred in her sworn testimony.[87]

In July 2006, the Los Angeles Times published a story on the allegations raised in the SCA case.[91] The report cited evidence at the trial including the results of the LNDD test and an analysis of these results by an expert witness.[92] From the Los Angeles Times article: "The results, Australian researcher Michael Ashenden testified in Dallas, show Armstrong's levels rising and falling, consistent with a series of injections during the Tour. Ashenden, a paid expert retained by SCA Promotions, told arbitrators the results painted a "compelling picture" that the world's most famous cyclist "used EPO in the '99 Tour."[91]

Ashenden's finding were disputed by the Vrijman report, which pointed to procedural and privacy issues in dismissing the LNDD test results. The Los Angeles Times article also provided information on testimony given by Armstrong's former teammate, Swart, Andreu and his wife Betsy, and instant messaging conversation between Andreu and Jonathan Vaughters regarding blood-doping in the peloton. Vaughters signed a statement disavowing the comments and stating he had: "no personal knowledge that any team in the Tour de France, including Armstrong's Discovery team in 2005, engaged in any prohibited conduct whatsoever." Andreu signed a statement affirming the conversation took place as indicated on the instant messaging logs submitted to the court.[93]

The SCA trial was settled out of court, and the Los Angeles Times reported: "Though no verdict or finding of facts was rendered, Armstrong called the outcome proof that the doping allegations were baseless." The Los Angeles Times article provides a review of the disputed positive EPO test, allegations and sworn testimony against Armstrong, but notes that: "They are filled with conflicting testimony, hearsay and circumstantial evidence admissible in arbitration hearings but questionable in more formal legal proceedings."[93]

In October, 2012, following the publication of the USADA reasoned decision, SCA Promotions announced its intention to recoup the monies paid to Armstrong totaling in excess of $7 million. Armstrong's legal representative Tim Herman stated in June ""When SCA decided to settle the case, it settled the entire matter forever. No backs. No re-dos. No do-overs. SCA knowingly and independently waived any right to make further claims to any of the money it paid." [94] SCA’s Jeff Dorough stated that on October 30, 2012, Armstrong was sent formal requesting the return of $12m in bonuses. It is alleged that Armstrong's legal team have offered settlement of $1 million[95][96]

Federal Enquiry 2010-2012

U.S. federal prosecutors pursued allegations of doping by Armstrong from 2010–2012. The effort convened a grand jury to investigate doping charges, including taking statements under oath from Armstrong's former team members and other associates; met with officials from France, Belgium, Spain, and Italy; and requested samples from the French anti-doping agency. The investigation was led by federal agent Jeff Novitzky, who also investigated suspicions of steroid use by baseball players Barry Bonds and Roger Clemens.

On May 20, 2010, former U.S. Postal teammate Floyd Landis accused Armstrong of doping in 2002 and 2003, and claimed that U.S. Postal team director Johan Bruyneel had bribed former UCI president Hein Verbruggen to keep quiet about a positive Armstrong test in 2002.[97][98] Landis admitted there was no documentation that supports these claims.[99] However, in July 2010 the president of the UCI, Pat McQuaid, revealed that Armstrong made two donations to the UCI: $25,000 in 2002, used by the juniors anti-doping program, and $100,000 in 2005, to buy a blood testing machine, and documentation of those payments does exist.[100]

Landis also maintains that he witnessed Armstrong receiving multiple blood transfusions, and dispensing testosterone patches to his teammates on the United States Postal Service Team.[101] On May 25, 2010, The International Cycling Union disputed comments from Floyd Landis, "Due to the controversy following the statements made by Floyd Landis, the International Cycling Union wishes to stress that none of the tests revealed the presence of EPO in the samples taken from riders at the 2001 Tour of Switzerland," the UCI said in a statement. "The UCI has all the documentation to prove this fact." According to ESPN, "Landis claimed that Armstrong tested positive while winning in 2002, a timeline Armstrong himself said left him 'confused,' because he did not compete in the event in 2002."[102]

In May 2011, former Armstrong teammate Tyler Hamilton told CBS News that he and Armstrong had together taken EPO before and during the 1999, 2000, and 2001 Tours de France. Armstrong's attorney, Mark Fabiani, responded that Hamilton was lying.[103] The accompanying 60 Minutes investigation alleged that two other former Armstrong teammates, Frankie Andreu and George Hincapie, have told federal investigators that they witnessed Armstrong taking banned substances, including EPO, or supplied Armstrong with such substances.[103]

Fabiani stated in response that, "We have no way of knowing what happened in the grand jury and so can't comment on these anonymously sourced reports."[104] Hamilton further claimed that Armstrong tested positive for EPO during the 2001 Tour de Suisse; 60 Minutes reported that the Union Cycliste Internationale intervened to conceal those test results, and that donations from Armstrong totaling US$125,000 may have played into said actions.[103]

Martial Saugy, chief of the Swiss anti-doping agency, later confirmed that they found four urine samples suspicious of EPO use at the 2001 race, but said there was no "positive test" and claimed not to know whether the suspicious results belonged to Armstrong. As a result, Armstrong's lawyers demanded an apology from 60 Minutes.[105] Instead of apologizing, CBS News chairman Jeff Fager said CBS News stands by its report as "truthful, accurate and fair", and added that the suspicious tests which Saugy confirmed to exist have been linked to Armstrong "by a number of international officials".[106]

On February 2, 2012, U.S. federal prosecutors officially dropped their criminal investigation with no charges.[107] The closing of the case by US Attorney André Birotte Jr. was not without controversy with the decision coming as a surprise to many.[108] In October, 2012, Velonews announced they had filed a freedom of information request regarding the two-year federal Armstrong investigation and its dismissal[109]

USADA Investigation 2011–2012

In June 2012, the United States Anti-Doping Agency (USADA) accused Armstrong of doping and trafficking of drugs, based on blood samples from 2009 and 2010, and testimonies from witnesses including former teammates.[110] Armstrong, denying all doping use in a statement,[111][112] was suspended from competition in cycling and triathlon.[113][114] Armstrong was charged in a letter from USADA, along with five others including former team manager Johan Bruyneel.[115] USADA said Armstrong used banned substances, including the blood-booster EPO and steroids, as well as blood transfusions dating back to 1996.[116]

Activity leading to August decision

In July 2012, Armstrong filed a lawsuit in the Texas Court requesting that the court "bar USADA from pursuing its case or issuing any sanctions against him" based on the claim that "USADA rules violate athletes' constitutional rights to a fair trial, and that the agency does not have jurisdiction in his case.". On July 10, 2012, after the initial lawsuit was dismissed for being overly lengthy, Armstrong filed a revised lawsuit.[117] The same day, USADA announced lifetime bans against three of his former U.S. Postal Service cycling team associates: Luis Garcia del Moral, a team doctor, Michele Ferrari, a consulting doctor, and Jose "Pepe" Marti, team trainer.[118]

U.S. District Judge Sam Sparks issued his ruling on August 20, 2012.[119] He ruled in favor of USADA. However he questioned the timing and motivation of USADA's investigation of Armstrong, and their apparent "single minded determination to force Armstrong to arbitrate" but also noting "in direct conflict with UCI's equally evident desire not to proceed against him". Applying rational basis review to the Federal Arbitration Act, the Stevens Amateur Sports Act, and various governing documents of USADA, USOC, and U.S. Cycling, Sparks upheld USADA's authority to investigate Armstrong and initiate arbitration against him, and that Armstrong's right to due process could not be violated by USADA before any proceedings had actually occurred.[120]

Four days after Judge Sparks decision, on August 24, 2012, USADA stripped Armstrong of all competitive results from August 1, 1998 to present. USADA also issued a lifetime ban of Armstrong from any activity or competition for which it has jurisdiction.[121]

Three days later, Armstrong, while publicly maintaining his innocence, decided to not officially challenge the USADA sanctions. In a statement, Armstrong said that the USADA had engaged in "an unconstitutional witch hunt" based on "outlandish and heinous claims." He added that he would have been more than willing to fight the charges, what he described as USADA's "one-sided and unfair" arbitration process was not worth the toll on his foundation and his family. "There comes a point in every man's life when he has to say, 'Enough is enough.'" Armstrong said. "For me, that time is now."[122] The New York Times reported that, "according to the WADA Code", Armstrong's failure to contest such serious charges of anti-doping rules violations means that he forfeits all awards and prizes earned after August 1, 1998, including his Tour titles, and is banned from any sport that uses the World Anti-Doping Code.[122][123][124][125]

UCI response and reasoned decision

Cycling's ruling body, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), requested on August 24, 2012, a "reasoned decision" from USADA, explaining why USADA thinks the UCI should strip Armstrong of his titles.[126][127]

On October 10, USADA published the details of its findings, in a 200-page report accompanied by over 1000 pages of supporting evidence, including 26 testimonies of which 11 were statements from former teammates.[128][129] Among those who testified were Betsy & Frankie Andreu who repeated their testimony of the 2005 SCA Promotions case, along with Floyd Landis and Tyler Hamilton who repeated allegations made over the preceding years. Statements were also taken from former teammates including George Hincapie,[130] Levi Leipheimer,[131] and Michael Barry[132] all of whom confessed to doping during their careers as well as witnessing Armstrong using performance enhancing drugs. Prior to its release, Armstrong's legal representative Tim Herman described the USADA reasoned decision as "a one-sided hatchet job -- a taxpayer-funded tabloid piece rehashing old, disproved, unreliable allegations based largely on axe-grinders, serial perjurers, coerced testimony, sweetheart deals and threat-induced stories"[133]

On October 22, UCI announced that it would not appeal USADA's recommendations to the Court of Arbitration for Sport, meaning that it accepted USADA's recommended sanctions of banning Armstrong for life and stripping him of all his titles since August 1, 1998, including all his Tour de France titles.[134] UCI's president Pat McQuaid remarked that "Armstrong has no place in cycling. He deserves to be forgotten."[7]

A day after the UCI decision, Armstrong deleted references to his Tour wins from his Twitter biography.[135]

On November 2, 2012, WADA confirmed that it would not appeal the USADA decision.[136]

Other reactions

The French Cycling Federation (FFC) issued a statement on August 30, 2012, in support of the USADA decision, stating that "Armstrong's refusal to contest USADA's accusations sounds like an admission of his guilt with regards to breaches of anti-doping regulation." The FFC also announced they do not want vacated positions to be reassigned and want "...reimbursement of Lance Armstrong's prizes obtained during the Tour de France and other competitions for an amount assessed at 2.95 million Euros for the development of cycling among the youth and the prevention of doping."[137]

The president of the World Anti Doping Agency (WADA), John Fahey, stated the he believed Armstrong's decision not to contest the USADA's claims pursuant to its process indicated there was "substance to those charges".[138]

Robert Boland, professor of sports management at New York University, believed that Armstrong's marketing potential was still strong after the USADA's decision, stating Armstrong's "story has not been diminished. Here's a guy who essentially was at death's door with cancer and came back. That example still makes him very compelling."[139]

Some cyclists have supported Armstrong. Spain's Fernando Escartin, who placed third in the 1999 Tour de France, stated "Lance Armstrong remains the 1999 Tour winner, second Zulle and third, me... It's 13 years now since this all happened. It seems completely illogical and unreal. I don't want to even think about it."[139]

Armstrong resigned as director of the Lance Armstrong Foundation and was dropped by sponsors RadioShack[140] and Nike on 17 October 2012.[141] Anheuser-Busch the same day said it would not renew its relationship with Armstrong at the end of 2012, but will continue to support the racer's cancer charity.[142] Other sponsors who cut ties with Armstrong on that day were Trek Bicycle Corporation, Giro, FRS Healthy Performance, Honey Stinger and 24 Hour Fitness.[143] On 19 October, bicycle parts manufacturer SRAM terminated the business relationship,[144] while Oakley severed its ties on 22 October.[145]

It was announced on 30 October that Armstrong was stripped of the key to Adelaide, which he had received as an honor for his three participations in the Tour Down Under.[146] At the end of November 2012, Armstrong was elected as the top "Anti-Sportsman of the year" by Sports Illustrated.[147]

Armstrong chooses not to appeal to CAS

After UCI's formal notification to Armstrong about their decision to back the USADA decision on December 6, 2012, Armstrong had 21 days to appeal the decision to the Court of Arbitration for Sport. According to L'Equipe, CAS indicated that Armstrong had made no appeal by the evening of December 27th, so the final deadline to appeal had passed.[2]

Possible admission

On January 4, 2013, the New York Times reported that Armstrong had told associates and antidoping officials that he was considering publicly admitting having used banned performance-enhancing drugs and blood transfusions during his cycling career.[3] Armstrong's attorney, Tim Herman, is denying the report that he has decided to admit to doping charges and told The Associated Press: "When, and if, Lance has something to say, there won't be any secret about it."[148] In a follow-up article on January 12, the New York Times reported that Armstrong would offer a "limited confession" to Oprah Winfrey in a television interview due to air on January 17. The limited confession reportedly would be done with the goal of mitigating punishments Armstrong has received that have prohibited him from participating in competitive athletic events.[149]

On January 14, 2013, it was reported that Armstrong made a full apology to the Livestrong staff prior to his interview with Oprah Winfrey.[150]

Outside of cycling

In 1997, Armstrong founded the Lance Armstrong Foundation, which supports people affected by cancer. The foundation raises awareness of cancer and has raised[151] more than $325 million from the sale of yellow Livestrong bracelets.[152] During his first retirement beginning after the 2005 season, he also maintained other interests. He was the pace car driver of the Chevrolet Corvette Z06 for the 2006 Indianapolis 500.

In 2007, Armstrong with Andre Agassi, Muhammad Ali, Warrick Dunn, Jeff Gordon, Mia Hamm, Tony Hawk, Andrea Jaeger, Jackie Joyner-Kersee, Mario Lemieux, Alonzo Mourning, and Cal Ripken, Jr. founded Athletes for Hope, a charity that helps professional athletes become involved in charitable causes and aims to inspire non-athletes to volunteer and support the community.[153]

In August 2009, Armstrong headlined the inaugural charity ride "Pelotonia" in Columbus, Ohio, riding over 100 miles on Saturday with the large group of cyclists. He addressed the riders the Friday evening before the two-day ride and helped the ride raise millions for cancer research.[154]

Marathons

Armstrong ran the 2006 New York City Marathon with two friends. With Nike, he assembled a pace team of Alberto Salazar, Joan Benoit Samuelson, and Hicham El Guerrouj to help him reach 3 hours. He finished in 2h 59m 36s, in 856th place. He said the race was extremely difficult compared to the Tour de France.[155] The NYC Marathon had a dedicated camera on Armstrong throughout the event which, according to Armstrong, pushed him to continue through points in which he would have normally "stopped and stretched".[156] He also helped raise $600,000 for his LiveStrong campaign during the run.

Armstrong ran the 2007 NYC Marathon in 2h 46m 43s, finishing 232nd.[157] On April 21, 2008, he ran the Boston Marathon in 2h 50m 58s, finishing in the top 500.[158]

Triathlon

Armstrong made his return to triathlon in the inaugural Ironman 70.3 Panama race, on February 12, 2012. He raced in the professional category, finishing with a time of 3:50:55, second overall to Bevan Docherty.[159] Armstrong's splits were 19:22 for the 1.2-mile swim, 2:10:18 for the 56-mile bike ride, and 1:17:01 for the run.[160] He also entered half-Ironman distance races in Texas (7th)[161] and St. Croix (3rd)[162] before breaking through with victories at Ironman 70.3 Florida and Ironman 70.3 Hawaii in overall times of 3:45:38[163] and 3:50:58,[164] respectively.

Politics

President George W. Bush and Armstrong mountain biking at the president's Prairie Chapel Ranch.

In The New York Times, teammate George Hincapie hinted that Armstrong would run for Governor of Texas after cycling. In the July 2005 issue of Outside magazine, Armstrong hinted at running for governor, although "not in '06".[165] Armstrong and former president George W. Bush, a Republican and fellow Texan, call themselves friends. Bush called Armstrong in France to congratulate him after his 2005 victory in August 2005, The Times reported the President had invited Armstrong to his Prairie Chapel Ranch to go mountain biking.[166] In a 2003 interview with The Observer, Armstrong said: "He's a personal friend, but we've all got the right not to agree with our friends."[167]

In August 2005, Armstrong hinted he had changed his mind about politics. In an interview with Charlie Rose on PBS on August 1, 2005, Armstrong pointed out that running for governor would require the commitment that led him to retire from cycling. Also, in August 2005, Armstrong said that he was no longer considering politics:

 
 
The biggest problem with politics or running for the governor—the governor's race here in Austin or in Texas—is that it would mimic exactly what I've done: a ton of stress and a ton of time away from my kids. Why would I want to go from pro cycling, which is stressful and a lot of time away, straight into politics?
 

 

[168]

Armstrong was co-chair of a California campaign committee to pass the California Cancer Research Act, a ballot measure defeated by California voters on June 5, 2012.[169] Had it passed, the measure was projected to generate over $500 million annually for cancer research, smoking-cessation programs and tobacco law-enforcement by levying a $1-per-pack tax on tobacco products in California.[170]

Palmares

1991
1st 20px Junior National Road Race Champion
1992
1st Stage 6 Settimana Bergamasca
1st Stage 4a Vuelta a Galicia
1st Stage 2 Trittico Premondiale
1st First Union Grand Prix
1st Overall Fitchburg-Longsjo Classic
1st Stage 2
2nd Züri-Metzgete
1993
1st 20px World Road Race Champion UCI Road World Championships
1st 20px US National Road Race Champion
1st Stage 8 Tour de France
1st Overall Tour of America
1st Trofeo Laigueglia
1st Thrift Drug Classic
1st Overall Kmart West Virginia Classic
1st Prologue & Stage 1
2nd Overall Tour du Pont
1st Stage 5
3rd Overall Tour of Sweden
1st Stage 3
1994
1st Thrift Drug Classic
1st Stage 7 Tour du Pont
2nd Liège–Bastogne–Liège
2nd Clásica de San Sebastián
1995
1st Clásica de San Sebastián
1st Stage 5 Paris–Nice
1st Overall Tour du Pont
1st Mountains Classifaction
1st Stages 4, 5 & 9
1st Overall Kmart West Virginia Classic
1st Stage 4
36th Overall Tour De France
1st Stage 18
1996
1st Overall Tour du Pont
1st Stages 2, 3b, 5, 6 & 12
1st La Flèche Wallonne
2nd Liège–Bastogne–Liège
2nd Overall Paris–Nice
1998
1st Sprint 56K Criterium
1st Overall Rheinland-Pfalz Rundfahrt
1st Overall Tour de Luxembourg
1st Stage 1
1st Cascade Cycling Classic

Template:Hidden begin

4th Overall Vuelta a España
1999
1st 20px Tour de France
1st Prologue
1st Stages 8, 9 & 19
1st Prologue Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré
1st Stage 4 Route du Sud
1st Stage 4 ITT Circuit de la Sarthe
2nd Amstel Gold Race
2000
1st 20px Tour de France
1st Stage 19 ITT
1st GP des Nations
1st Grand Prix Eddy Merckx
1st Stage 3 ITT Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré
2001
1st Overall 20px Tour de France
1st Stages 10, 11, 13 & 18
1st Overall 20px Tour de Suisse
1st Stages 1 & 8
2nd Amstel Gold Race
2002
1st Overall 20px Tour de France
1st Prologue
1st Stages 11, 12 & 19
1st Overall 20px Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré
1st Stage 6
1st Overall GP du Midi Libre
1st Profronde van Stiphout
2003
1st Overall 20px Tour de France
1st Stages 4 TTT & 15
1st Overall 20px Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré
1st Stage 3 ITT
2004
1st Overall 20px Tour de France
1st Stages 4 TTT, 13, 15, 16 ITT, 17 & 19 ITT
1st Overall Tour de Georgia
1st Stages 3 & 4
1st Stage 5 Tour du Languedoc-Roussillon
1st Stage 4 ITT Volta ao Algarve
1st Profronde van Stiphout
2005
1st Overall 20px Tour de France
1st Stages 4 TTT & 20 ITT
1st 20px Points Classification Critérium du Dauphiné Libéré
2008
2nd Leadville Trail 100 Mountain Bike Race
1st 12 Hours of Snowmass
1st Individual Time Trial Tour de Gruene
1st TTT Tour de Gruene
2009
1st Nevada City Classic
1st Colorado Pro Cross-Country Championships
1st Leadville Trail 100 Mountain Bike Race
2nd Overall Tour of the Gila
3rd Overall Tour de France
1st Stage 4 TTT
11th Overall Giro d'Italia
2010
2nd Overall Tour de Suisse
3rd Overall Tour de Luxembourg
7th Overall Vuelta a Murcia
23rd Overall Tour De France

Template:Hidden end

2000
3rd 20px Individual Time Trial 2000 Summer Olympics
Triathlon & Ironman
2011
5th XTERRA USA Championships
2012
1st Ironman 70.3 Hawaii
1st Ironman 70.3 Florida
3rd Ironman 70.3 St. Croix
7th Ironman 70.3 Texas
2nd Ironman 70.3 Panama
2nd Power of Four Mountain Bike Race

Template:Palmares end

Grand Tours overall classification results timeline

Grand Tour 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2009 2010
20px Vuelta - - - - -  4  - - - - - - - - -
20px Giro - - - - - - - - - - - - - 11 -
20px Tour WD WD 36 WD - - 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 23

WD = Withdrew;
voided results struck through

Filmography

Armstrong appeared as himself in the following films:

Accolades

See also

Further reading

External links


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  82. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Armstrong_cleared_in_drug_inquiry
  83. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named UCI_report_clears_Armstrong
  84. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Max2006
  85. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Scholten_c.s._Advocaten
  86. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named The_possibility_of_tampering
  87. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named npr.org
  88. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Armstrong_issues_statement
  89. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Papers_charge_Armstrong_admitted_doping
  90. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named b5z
  91. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named trail
  92. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Evidence_of_a_banned_substance.3F
  93. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Andy_Shen
  94. ^ Vertuno, Jim. "Lance Armstrong Refund? SCA Promotions Demands Tour De France Bonus Money Be Returned", 10/26/12. 
  95. ^ http://www.velonation.com/News/ID/13274/Report-Armstrongs-lawyers-proposed-settlement-with-SCA-Promotions.aspx
  96. ^ http://reader.roopstigo.com/view/roopster/story/615/#/chapter/1/
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  98. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Cossins
  99. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Landis_admits_doping.2C_accuses_Lance
  100. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named McQuaid_reveals_Armstrong_made_two_donations_to_the_UCI
  101. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Floyd_Landis_Nightline_Interview
  102. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named International_Cycling_Union_refutes_Floyd_Landis.27_claims_about_2001_Tour_de_Suisse
  103. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named 60minutesEPO
  104. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named associated3
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  107. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named cnn5
  108. ^ http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/10/16/us-cycling-armstrong-idUSBRE89F1AI20121016
  109. ^ http://velonews.competitor.com/2012/10/news/after-expansive-usada-report-feds-mum-on-why-armstrong-case-was-dropped_260724
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  112. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Armstrong_statement_regarding_USADA_Charges
  113. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Armstrong_charged_with_doping_by_USADA
  114. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named USADA_levels_doping_charges_at_Armstrong
  115. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Letter_from_USADA_to_Lance_Armstrong.2C_Johan_Bruyneel.2C_Dr_Pedro_Celaya.2C_Dr_Luis_Garcia_del_Moral.2C_Pepe_Marti.2C_and_Dr_Michele_Ferrari
  116. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named UCIasksUSADA2012
  117. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lance_Armstrong_refiles_USADA_suit.3B_team_members_decline_arbitration.2C_receive_lifetime_bans
  118. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Michele_Ferrari.2C_Pepe_Marti_and_Luis_Garcia_del_Moral_receive_lifetime_bans
  119. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Motion_to_dismiss-Case_1:12-cv-00606-SS
  120. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Texas_judge_dismisses_Lance_Armstrong_case_against_USADA
  121. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lance_Armstrong_Receives_Lifetime_Ban_And_Disqualification_Of_Competitive_Results_For_Doping_Violations_Stemming_From_His_Involvement_In_The_United_States_Postal_Service_Pro-Cycling_Team_Doping_Conspiracy
  122. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named NYTdropsfight
  123. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named WADA_Code_Article_8
  124. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named indiatimes2012
  125. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lance_Armstrong_Receives_Lifetime_Ban_And_Disqualification_Of_Competitive_Results_For_Doping_Violations_Stemming_From_His_Involvement_In_The_United_States_Postal_Service_Pro-Cycling_Team_Doping_Conspiracy6
  126. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Press_Release:_UCI.27s_statement_on_Lance_Armstrong.27s_decision
  127. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lance_Armstrong:_USADA_will_reveal_doping_evidence
  128. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  129. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  130. ^ http://d3epuodzu3wuis.cloudfront.net/Hincapie%2c+George+Affidavit.pdf
  131. ^ http://d3epuodzu3wuis.cloudfront.net/Leipheimer%2c+Levi%2c+Affidavit.pdf
  132. ^ http://d3epuodzu3wuis.cloudfront.net/Barry%2c+Michael+Affidavit.pdf
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  135. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  136. ^ http://playtrue.wada-ama.org/news/wada-confirms-it-will-not-appeal-usada-reasoned-decision-in-lance-armstrong-case/
  137. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named French_Cycling_Federation_praises_USADA.27s_actions_in_Armstrong_case
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  139. ^ a b {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
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  141. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lance_Armstrong_dropped_by_Nike_over_doping_evidence
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  145. ^ Keith Weir. "Sponsor Oakley drops Armstrong after 25 years", Reuters, Thomson Reuters, 22 October 2012. Retrieved on 30 November 2012. 
  146. ^ "Armstrong stripped of key to Adelaide", ABC News Australia, 2012 ABC, 30 October 2012. Retrieved on 30 November 2012. 
  147. ^ RJ Rico. "Anti-Sportsman of the Year", Sports Illustrated, 2012 Time Inc. Retrieved on 30 November 2012. 
  148. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  149. ^ New York Times, On Winfrey’s Show, Armstrong Is Planning to Confess Drug Use January 12, 2012.
  150. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
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  159. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Docherty_steals_victory_from_Lance_Armstrong
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  161. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Lance_Armstrong_surrenders_lead.2C_finishes_seventh_in_Memorial_Hermann_Ironman_70.3_Texas_triathlon
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  168. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Armstrong_rules_out_political_career..._for_now
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  174. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Mayor_Giuliani_Welcomes_Stuart_Rankin.2C_Grandson_Of_Jesse_Owens.2C_To_City_Hall
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  177. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named 2003_Sports_Ethics_Fellows
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  182. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Laureati_del_Mendrisio_d.27Oro_e_d.27Argento_dal_1972_al_2010
  183. ^ http://www.espnstar.com/other-sports/news/detail/item909987/
  184. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Payton_Epitomized_Courage
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  186. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named President_Announces_Delegation_to_Winter_Olympics
  187. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Tour_de_Lance
  188. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Previous_William_Hill_Sportsbook_of_the_Year_Winners
  189. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Indy_500_Pace_Cars
  190. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sources:_Lance_Armstrong_To_Drive_Indy_500_Pace_Car
  191. ^ "JPL Small-Body Database Browser", NASA, 11 May 2009. Retrieved on 30 November 2012. 
  192. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  193. ^ Parker, Richard. "Can Austin Keep Itself Weird? (New York Times)", Austin (Tex): Nytimes.com, 2012-10-25. Retrieved on 2012-11-10. 
  194. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  195. ^ http://www.weeklystandard.com/blogs/university-rescinds-honorary-degree-awarded-lance-armstrong_663723.html
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  198. ^ "Lance Armstrong loses Keys to City of Adelaide", News Corporation, 2012-10-31. Retrieved on 2013-01-03.