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Josip Broz Tito, Communists Extremists and Wikipedia

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A younger Josip Broz Tito. According to Ian Cuthbertson " a Balkans hero with a bloodthirsty streak". Dictator Josip Broz Tito and Wikipedia have a special relationship.

Wikipedia's article on Dictator Josip Broz Tito and Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia is mostly Communist propaganda of the now defunct Communist Party of the former Yugoslavia. As it turns out Jimmy Wales has provided a perfect vehicle for propaganda of this type. The articles are mainly written by Editors from Croatia (Eastern European Neo-Communists extremists) and supported by other Editors and Wikipedia-Administrators who have communist leanings. It is written in a biased non-encyclopaedic fashion and does not represent contemporary views. Sections of these articles are written in a child-like manner, similar to the Yugoslav primary school textbooks from the 1970s (Communist's rhetoric spin).

After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of Yugoslavia, factual evidence has emerged that Dictator Josip Broz Tito and his regime (former Yugoslavia) were responsible for executing the Way of the Cross (death marches),[1][2] Bleiburg [3][4][5][6] and Foibe massacres.[7][8][9][10]

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica on events post World War Two in Yugoslavia:
 
 

" British commanders refused to accept their surrender and handed them over to the Partisans, who took a merciless revenge. Tens of thousands, including many civilians, were subsequently slaughtered on forced marches and in death camps." [11]
 


 

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica:
 
 

"After the armistice the British repatriated more than 10,000 Slovene collaborators who had attempted to retreat with the Germans, and Tito had most of them massacred at the infamous Pits of Kocevje". [12]
 


 

  • Vladimir Geiger of the Croatian Institute for History statement concerning Yugoslavia post World War Two:
 
 

"The list of German victims includes 26,000 women and 5,800 children who died in Yugoslav Camps"- Geiger said.[13][14]
 


 

Additionally there is the ethnic cleansing of Germans and Italians of the former Yugoslavia. [15][16][17][18] One only has to mention Goli Otok,[19][20][21] a notorious prison on the Croatian coast (former Yugoslavia’s Evil Island-Gulag). The terror campaign lasted for about twenty years until the regime introduced reforms in the 1960's.

In a nutshell Wikipedian-Administrators do not pay any due weight to these inhuman historical facts - why?

Biased Usage of Wikipedia

How can Wikipedia and Jimmy Wales the co-founder (above) benefit from such a politically biased article?

The usage of Wikipedia as a tool for promoting this type of propaganda is second only to Google itself. This exposes a major flaw in Wikipedia which is that a group of editors (or organisations) can learn to work the system so they can promote their own point of view, so that the article will become a stated Wiki fact, and itself a piece of history.

Where are the ethical and moral issues involved in creating a feel good story about Dictator Josip Broz Tito. Why is Wikipedia supporting a biased dated view of a regime that was responsible for executing mass murders, arrests and torture? Is Wikipedia taking on a darker tone?

  • Statement by a Wikipedian Editor DIREKTOR (21 October 2009):
 
 

However, as was pointed out to this persistent POV-pusher on numerous, numerous occasions by many users: they have absolutely nothing to do with Josip Broz Tito [22]
 


 

Wikipedian Editor DIREKTOR tried to remove Josip Broz Tito from Wikipedia's article "List of dictators" /Link, and is trying to create the falsehood that a mass murdering executioner was a Benevolent dictator (his speciality is totalitarian communist spin).

  • Here is a historic quote from Aleksandar Rankovic, the Interior Minister and the head of the military and secret police of Yugoslavia at a Belgrade meeting stated:
 
 

Through our prisons has passed between 1945 and 1951, 3 777 776 prisoners, while we killed 586 000 enemies of the people. [23] Taken from Politika, Belgrade/1 February 1951 (p.1)
 


 

Barbara Rov-Slovenia."One of the many massacre sites"

Government of the Slovenia - Commission on Concealed Mass Graves

The government of the Republic of Slovenia (a former republic of Yugoslavia) has commission a study of communist crimes in the immediate post World War Two period. It was called Commission on Concealed Mass Graves in Slovenia. Their work was completed in October 2009. Below is a Croatian Newspaper Jutarnji report on the matter:[24]

Jutarnji wrote on the 01/10/2009 - 100 000 Victims In 581 Mass Graves:

 
 

In Slovenia, three basic books came out needed for the study of communist crimes in the immediate post-war period. It specifies graves where liquidation and execution of prisoners of war were carried out in its territory. This is a report by the Commission of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia for testing grave sites under the leadership of Joze Dezman and the historian Mitja Ferenc (author of Hidden in his Father Zakrito & Prikrita Grobišča 60 Let po Koncu Druge Svetovne Vojne). The report of the Commission of the Government specifies the number of mass graves and victims and their nationality. In this collection, in Slovenia, there was discovered and detected 581 mass graves in which, the author estimates about 100 000 victims in total. According to the research of Slovenian and Croatian historians, Partisans in Slovenia liquidated most of the Ustasa and Home Guard units. The Croats accounted for between 50 to 80 thousands casualties.
 


 

The factual evidence (above) has cast a very different light on Josip Broz Tito (the Commander of all Yugoslav Partisans/Communists during World War Two). He and his comrades were responsible for these Communist Crimes. Wikipedia's article on this individual seems to gloss over all of the mentioned historical events (in this article), or just does not mention them at all.

Note: Joze Dezman is a Slovenian historian. He is currently the director of the National Museum of Contemporary History in Ljubljana, Slovenia.


Below is referenced information from European Public Hearing on: “Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes". The European Public Hearing was organised by the Slovenian Presidency of the Council of the European Union (January–June 2008) and the European Commission. Link

Survey of concentration camps in Yugoslavia (Slovenia) in 1945

Concentration camps for members of the German national minority:

  • Strnisce near Ptuj
  • Hrastovec near Sv. Lenart in Slovenske Gorice
  • Studenci near Maribor
  • Brestrnica near Maribor
  • Kamnica near Maribor
  • Tezno near Maribor
  • Teharje near Celje

Concentration camps for members of the Hungarians national minority:

  • Filovci in Prekmurje
  • Hrastovec near Sv. Lenart in Slovenske Gorice
  • Strnisce near Ptuj

Concentration camps for members of the Slovenian Home-Guard:

  • Teharje near Celje
  • Skofovi zavodi in St. Vid nad Ljubljano
  • Skofja Loka (p.154)

A quote from the document itself:

 
 
  • In this paper, the author deals with concentration and labour camps established in Slovenia (a former republic of Yugoslavia) under Communist rule after the end of the war in Slovenia in 1945. Concentration camps were established already in May 1945 and were filled with members of the German and Hungarian national minorities, captured members of the Slovenian Home-guard (“domobranstvo”) and members of military units from other Yugoslav regions who fought against the partisans.
  • The treatment of internees in these camps was as cruel as in the Nazi concentration camps. In certain Communist concentration camps, for example, such as the camp in Teharje and at the Bishop’s institutes (Skofovi zavodi) in St. Vid nad Ljubljano, the great majority of internees were killed without any trial. In the autumn of 1945, concentration camps in Slovenia were abolished.
  • Communist labour camps in Slovenia were established already in 1945. These were camps for forced labour and were called penal camps. In 1949, correctional camps and camps for socially beneficial labour called working groups were established. All these labour camps were abolished in the beginning of 1951, when new criminal legislation, free of the concept of forced, correctional and socially beneficial labour was adopted. (pages 145 & 146)
     

 

Press releases “Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regime"- Link concerning the European Public Hearing (Brussels, 8 April 2008)

European Public Hearing on “Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes" and Yugoslavia

Reports and proceedings of the 8th of April European public hearing on “Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes”,[25] organised by the Slovenian Presidency of the Council of the European Union (January–June 2008) and the European Commission,[26] stated the following concerning the former Yugoslavia:

 
 

Totalitarian machines: Let us mention briefly Fascism, National Socialism and Titoism in Italy, Austria and Slovenia (a former republic of Yugoslavia). Three Christian nations, with nationalist tendencies, were infected with totalitarianism. The descent into barbarism has comparable structural elements: [27]

  • Abuse of national sentiment to carry out racial and class revolutionary projects;
  • Cult of a great leader, who permits his fanatics to murder, steal and lie;
  • Dictatorship of one party;
  • Militarisation of society, police state – almighty secret political police;
  • Collectivism, subjection of the citizen to the totalitarian state;
  • State terrorism with systematic abuses of basic human rights;
  • Aggressive assumption of power and struggle for territory. (page 197.)
     

 

Additional:

 
 
  • Property was confiscated, inhabitants were expelled from Slovenia/Yugoslavia and their residences, political and show trials were carried out, religion was repressed and the Catholic Church and its clergy were persecuted. At the beginning of the 1950s, Communist rule in Slovenia abandoned these forms of repression but was ready to reapply them if it felt threatened.
  • Thus the regime set up political and show trials against certain more visible opponents later. In the case of an “emergency situation”, even the establishment of concentration camps was planned in Slovenia in 1968, where around 1,000 persons, of whom 10 % were women, would be interned for political reasons. (Page 161.)
     

 

Titoism as a ideology emerged after the Tito and Stalin split and was named after Josip Broz Tito. Titoism dominated political ideology and government policies of the former Yugoslavia.

Note: The Reforms in Yugoslavia After 1948 by Fred Warner Neal. Page 214. Second chapter, stated: [28]

 
 

In a totalitarian state,[29] personal freedom and human rights invariably most at the hands of unrestrianed police activity. That Yugoslavia was no exception was admitted by Aleksandar Rankovic, himself head of secret police or State Security Administration. This organization is known in Yugoslavia as UDBA.
 


 

Wikipedia's point of view: Yugoslavia-Link:

 
 
  • The post-World War II Yugoslavia was in many respects a model of how to build a multinational state.
  • The ethnic violence was only ended when the multiethnic Yugoslav Partisans took over the country at the end of the war and banned nationalism from being publicly promoted. [30]
     

 

Josip Broz Tito and Cult of Personality

Marshal of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin. Josip Broz Tito's Cult of Personality was based on Comrade Stalin.

The article doesn't even mention Josip Broz Tito's Cult of Personality:[31][32]

 
 

Virtually every communist system extinct or surviving at one point or another, had a supreme leader who was both extraordinarily powerful and surrounded by a bizarre cult, indeed worshipped. In the past (or in more traditional contemporary societies) such cults were reserved for deities and associated with conventional religious behaviour and institutions. These cults although apparently an intrinsic part of communist dictatorships (at any rate at a stage in their evolution) are largely forgotten today.

Stalin, Maio, Castro, Ho Chi Minh, Kim Sung, Enver Hoxha, Ceascesu, Dimitrov, Ulbricht, Gottwald, Tito and others all were the object of such cults. The prototypical cult was that of Stalin which was duplicated elsewhere with minor variations. [33]
 


 

Above is referenced from Paul Hollander's ‘Discontents: Post-modern and Post-communist’ Paul Hollander is an American scholar, journalist, and conservative political writer. (Ph.D in Sociology. Princeton University, 1963, B.A. London School of Economics, 1959 Professor Emeritus of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Centre Associate, Davis)

Yugoslavia and Economic realities

An interesting fact is that Wikipedia's article does not even mention that Josip Broz Tito and his fellow communists were committing economic suicide in the 1960's and 70's. Credit where credit is due; the Communist party of Yugoslavia did raise the standard of living in the 1960s and 1970s. This was achieved through Western investment,[34] but it was all a short-term solution. Economic problems started with the inflation crisis in 1978 due mainly to Communist mismanagement.

Factual statements on economic realities of Josip Broz and his fellow Communists:

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica states:
 
 

He knew that the Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, and others could not be integrated within some new supranation, nor would they willingly accept the hegemony of any of their number; yet his supranational Yugoslavism frequently smacked of unitarism. He promoted self-management but never gave up on the party’s monopoly of power. He permitted broad freedoms in science, art, and culture that were unheard of in the Soviet bloc, but he kept excoriating the West. He preached peaceful coexistence but built an army that, in 1991, delivered the coup de grace to the dying Yugoslav state. At his death, the state treasury was empty and political opportunists unchecked. He died too late for constructive change, too early to prevent chaos.[35]
 


 

  • BBC UK/History by Tim Judah:
 
 

Tito's Yugoslavia also gained enormous prestige as a founder of the non-aligned movement, which aimed to find a place in world politics for countries that did not want to stand foursquare behind either of the two superpowers. Despite all this, and although there was much substance to Tito's Yugoslavia, much was illusion too. The economy was built on the shaky foundations of massive western loans. Even liberal communism had its limits, as did the very nature of the federation. Stirrings of nationalist dissent in Croatia and Kosovo were crushed. The federation worked because in reality the voice of only one man counted - that of Tito himself. [36]
 


 

  • Ivo Goldstein 'Croatia A History':
 
 
  • Self-management as system was only slightly more efficient than the Soviet model. It was bureaucratised and cumbersome and could not compete with Western economies. People could obtain so much free or for less than the market price (e.g. apartments) that they could be obtain without work. All this made the settling of accounts in the 1980s and in the post-socialist age more difficult.
  • In Tito’s system no interest or ideas could be expressed in a truly democratic way. This did most harm where feelings of ethnic identity were concerned because their suppression led to growth of extreme nationalism. Furthermore, the economic failure of Tito’s system, most clearly expressed in the protracted crisis of the 1980s, left people who even if they were not poor, were disillusioned and open to manipulation by demagogues. Finally Tito’s practical solutions ensured that he would retain unlimited power during his life time, but foreshadowed the problems would come after his death. [37]
     

 

Note: Ivo Goldstein is a Professor at the University of Zagreb & former Director of the Institute for Croatian History of the University of Zagreb. Zagreb is the capital city of Croatia (a former republic of Yugoslavia).

Fellow Wikipedian Editors Comments on the Biased Usage of Wikipedia

One fellow Wikipedian Editor finds somethings just don't add up:

 
 

The problem is that DIREKTOR is seeing his highly biased version that he defended by all means in all these articles being replaced by correct interpretations of sources, thus all the panic now. A way to demonstrate this highly biased approach by him can be confirmed by his insistent way of describing the issue purposely as "obscure". After all we are dealing with a major resistance movement in the entire region, that, yes, did had its difficulties trough-out the war. But DIREKTOR seems unable to separate his personal feelings here... and that is a BIG problem, joined by his highly manipulative and rude manner of discussing these sensitive issues. A clear disruption in my view, but unfortunately and amazingly, DIREKTOR has been forgiven always because of some strange reasons...
 


 

Another fellow Wikipedian Editor finds something is not quite right with the Dictator's article:

 
 

Sorry but your #1 (non-local) is the definition of WP:BIAS (speaking of locals - Dizdar is quoted in the article - I've actually downloaded his paper and what he says doesn't resemble what his research is being used to support here), and your #4 is very debatable since everyone (and by "everyone" I mean scholars both in the region and abroad, the general public, history textbooks, popular media and the like) consider Tito to be synonymous with Yugoslavia, the country where he was the ultimate authority on all matters, including being the country's prime minister, president, defence minister and/or commander-in-chief. When they talk about Yugoslavia's accomplishments they call them "Tito's accomplishments" and when they talk about atrocities they talk about "Tito's atrocities". Insisting that reliable authors must provide proof of his direct involvement in something is in direct opposition with WP:OR. Tito is synonymous with the regime he led for better or worse just like Hitler is synonymous with Nazi Germany or Ante Pavelić with NDH or Nicolae Ceausescu with communist Romania. That's what Slovenian Constitutional Court's ruling said, that's what historians say and that's what the public thinks. The only difference is that his fans focus only on regime's good things and his critics on its bad things. But nobody opposes the idea that it was all him. But the issue remains that this article does not touch on any negative thing at all. So how is a reader going to make sense of the court ruling?
 


 

The Slovenia Times Article

Below is taken from The Slovenia Times article "Naming Street After Tito Unconstitutional":

 
 

The name Tito does not only symbolise the liberation of the territory of present-day Slovenia from fascist occupation in WWII as claimed by the other party in the case, but also grave violations of human rights and basic freedoms, especially in the decade following WWII.
 


 

 
 

The Constitutional Court has ruled unanimously that the 2009 decision of the Ljubljana City Council to name a street in the capital after former communist leader Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980) is unconstitutional. [38]
 


 

Testimony-Eye Witness

  • Mitja Ribicic - Internal Security of the Former Yugoslavia: Interview BBC 4
  • Ivan Supek - Croatian Physicist, Philosopher, Writer, Playwright, Peace Activist Humanist & former Yugoslav Partizan: Interview BBC 4
  • Janez Stanovnik - Slovenian Politician & Economist/Former Yugoslav Partizan Commander.
  • Simo Dubajic- Link Former Yugoslav Partizan Commander: Simo Dubajic published a book entitled Život, Grijeh i Kajanje (Life, Sin and Killing). The book is a detail account about the post World War Two massacre of Croatian POWs (Way of the Cross) and Slovenian POWs at Kocevski Rog, Slovenia.
  • Josip Zoretic - Political prisoner of the former Yugoslavia's most notorious prison, Goli Otok:Yugoslavia’s Evil Island-Gulag:
 
 

Hell in the Adriatic is the true story of Josip Zoretic's tragic experience and survival as a political prisoner of the former Yugoslavia's most notorious prison, Goli Otok, and the circumstances that led to his imprisonment. He provides a first hand account of the island prison labor camp from 1962-1969 that institutionalized a system of repression and enslavement against those who opposed the communist regime and the spread of greater Serbian authority. It is a rare detailed description of the evil and horrors that happened on Goli Otok.
 


 

  • Vera Winter – Economist/Political prisoner of the former Yugoslavia's most notorious prison, Goli Otok: BBC 4
  • Alfred Pal - Artist/Political prisoner of the former Yugoslavia's most notorious prison, Goli Otok: BBC 4
British Government representatives:
  • Frank Waddams a British Government representative who had lived outside of Belgrade, said:
 
 

He knew first hand of ten concentration camps and had talked with inmates from nearly all of them. “ The tale is always the same, he said “ Starvation, overcrowding, brutality and death condition, which make Dachau and Buchenwald mild by comparison. Many Slovenes who were released from Dachau at the end of the war came home only to find themselves in a Slovene camp within a few days. It is from these people that the news has come that the camps are worse than Dachau.” Out of a Slovene population of 1,200,000, Waddams believes that 20,000 to 30,000 were imprisoned.[39]
 


 

  • British Consulate, Ljubljana to British Ambassador Belgrade, 22 August 1947- concerning post World War Two political trials:
 
 

A brief reading of the newspaper reports, however, will suffice to make it clear that the trial was first and foremost a gigantic political propaganda stunt whose double aim was first to show Britain and America as the irreconcilable enemies of the new Yugoslavia, and second, finally to frighten off anyone who might still think that it is possible to associate with officials of the Western countries and get away with it.[40]
 


 



  • Below: "Michael Palaich interviewed WWII Nuremberg War Crimes Prosecutor Gerald Draper on whether Tito and his Yugoslav partizans could be charged with war crimes for slaughtering surrendered Croats and Croat civilians using criteria established by the Allied War Crimes Tribunals following WWII."


Media

 
 

a. Josip Broz Tito, the hard man who managed to unite Yugoslavia after World War II, has long been regarded as somehow less awful than his fellow communist leaders. This French documentary makes it clear that even now, after Yugoslavia has disintegrated (mostly chaotically), Tito is still adored by some in the Balkans, with festivals commemorating his birthday and enthusiasts kissing his statue and declaring their love for him.

b. Turned back from Austria by the Allies and handed over to Tito's forces, they were executed in the woods without trial. Investigations in Slovenia have found evidence to suggest the dead were naked, or partly naked, and tied with wire when they were killed.The graves' existence was an open secret for decades, yet they were not documented and not commonly discussed.

c. Yet Tito, internationally feted unifier of Yugoslavia, wrought violence on many fronts. His purges were merciless, and his forces rounded up thousands of suspected opponents and sent them to a prison on Goli Otok (Barren Island) where they were beaten, tortured and killed.
 


 

See also

Notes and References

  1. ^ BBC-History Partisans: War in the Balkans 1941-1945. Dr Stephen A Hart is senior lecturer in war studies at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. He is the author of The Road to Falaise: Operations "Totalize" & "Tractable" (Alan Sutton, 2004), "Montgomery " and "Colossal Cracks": The 21st Army Group in Northwest Europe, 1944-45 (Praeger, 2000).
    • "Murder, rape and mass executions were all too common in Yugoslavia during World War Two - carried out by Partisan fighters as well as by Chetnik rebels and German troops." Link
  2. ^ Hrcak Portal of Scientific Journals of Croatia: An Addition to the Research of the Problem of Bleiburg & Way of the Cross. Scientific Journal by Zdravko Dizdar University of Zagreb.
    • "An Addition to the Research of the Problem of Bleiburg & Way of the Cross. This paper dedicated to the 60th anniversary of these tragic events represents a small step towards the elaboration of known data and brings a list of yet unknown and unpublished original documents, mostly belonging to the Yugoslavian Military and Political Government 1945-1947. Amongst those documents are those mostly relating to Croatian territory although a majority of concentration camps and execution sites were outside of Croatia, in other parts of Yugoslavia. The author hopes that the readers will receive a complete picture about events related to Bleiburg and the Way of The Cross and the suffering of numerous Croats, which is confirmed directly in many documents and is related to the execution of a person or a whole group of people and sometimes non-stop for days."
  3. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  4. ^ Identity Politics in the Age of Genocide: The Holocaust and Historical by David B. MacDonald. (p168)
    • "The Partisans also carried out massacres, best known being at Bleiburg (Austria), where retreating Croatian and Slovenian forces and their families were massacred."
  5. ^ Yalta and The Bleiburg Tragedy by C Michael McAdams/University of San Francisco, California-USA. Presented at the International Symposium for Investigation of the Bleiburg Tragedy Zagreb, Croatia and Bleiburg, Austria May 17 and 18, 1994.
  6. ^ Bleiburg Massacre:
    • Among the Croats were real or alleged members or collaborators of the fascist regime. The Croats were members or collaborators of the fascist regime, although there were many frightened innocent people, however, these two were inextricably mixed. Fleeing with the fascist units that were attempting to surrender to British forces in Austria. Apart from Croats, present in the fleeing military columns were remaining units of the Serbian Chetniks and the Slovenian White Guard (Bela Garda), the vast majority of both were killed as well. The British forces refused to accept the Ustasa's surrender as per the Allied agreement and they were prevented from entering the British occupied areas.
  7. ^ The Frontiers of Europe by Malcolm Anderson & Eberhard Bort (p77)
  8. ^ Refugees in the Age of Total War by Anna Bramwell (p136, read Zara-p137)
  9. ^ A Tragedy Revealed The Story of the Italian Population of Istria & Dalmatia by Arrigo Petacco. (p12 & page 81 Zadar/Zara)
  10. ^ Where the Balkans Begin (The Slovenes in Triest-The Foiba Story) by Bernard Meares:
    • "During the early Communist occupation in Trieste, Gorizia and the Littoral, and the 40 days of Communist rule in Trieste city, some 6000 arrests were made and the prisoners carried off to Communist-controlled areas. When the Allies finally imposed their rule they found out about the Yugoslav execution squads. The more objective Italian historians and statisticians such as Galliano Fogar and Raoul Pupo point to between 1000 and 1800 Italians and Slovene victims. The Red Cross estimates that 2,250 failed to return , in rough agreement with Bogdan Novak who said in 1971 that 4200 Italians returned out of 6000 arrested."
  11. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  12. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  13. ^ Newcomers Network: German Mass Grave Sheds New Light on Close of World War Two.
  14. ^ M & C News: Feature German mass grave sheds new light on close of World War Two (Feature) By Boris Raseta Feb 17, 2011, 2:06 GMT
  15. ^ Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, Volume 3 by Dinah Shelton Macmillan Reference, 2005 - Political Science (p.1170)
  16. ^ www.enotes.com "Yugoslavia." Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Ed. Dinah L. Shelton. Gale Cengage, 2005. eNotes.com. 2006. 26 Jun, 2010 Yugoslavia: Genocide & Crimes Against Humanity-Mark Thompson.
    • "The killing continued after the war, as Tito's victorious forces took revenge on their real and perceived enemies. British forces in Austria turned back tens of thousands of fleeing Yugoslavs. Estimates range from 30,000 to 55,000 killed between spring and autumn 1945."
    • "Native German and Hungarian communities, seen as complicit with wartime occupation, were brutally treated; tantamount in some cases to ethnic cleansing. The Volksdeutsch settlements of Vojvodina and Slavonia largely disappeared. Perhaps 100,000 people—half the ethnic German population in Yugoslavia—fled in 1945, and many who remained were compelled to do forced Labour, murdered, or later ransomed by West Germany. Some 20,000 Hungarians of Vojvodina were killed in reprisals. Albanian rebellions in Kosovo were suppressed, with prisoners sent on death marches towards the coast. An estimated 170,000 ethnic Italians fled to Italy in the late 1940s and 1950s. (All of these figures are highly approximate.)"
  17. ^ Ethnic Conflict: Causes, Consequences, and Responses by Karl Cordell & Stefan Wolff (p181)
  18. ^ The Frontiers of Europe by Malcolm Anderson & Eberhard Bort (p77)
  19. ^ The Three Yugoslavias: State-building and Legitimation, 1918-2005 by Sabrina P. Ramet. (p377).
  20. ^ Discontents: Postmodern and Postcommunist by Paul Hollander. (p397)
  21. ^ Goli Otok: Yugoslavia’s Evil Island Gulag Josip Zoretic-Political prisoner of the former Yugoslavia's most notorious prison. Goli Otok: Hell in the Adriatic (book) by Josip Zoretic
  22. ^ Wikipedia-Neutral point of view/Noticeboard: Archive 9. Summary of Josip Broz Tito Article
  23. ^ Communist Crime is not Antifascism Released on International Human Rights Day, 10 DECEMBER 2008. On behalf of the participants in public meetings Maja Runje, a member of the Steering Committee- Zagreb (p. 19). Article is in Croatian: KOMUNISTIČKI ZLOČINI NISU ANTIFAŠIZAM POVODOM MEĐUNARODNOG DANA LJUDSKIH PRAVA,10. PROSINCA 2008. U ime sudionika javnog okupljanja Maja Runje, članica Koordinacijskog odbora Kruga za trg10 000 Zagreb, Jurjevska 47a (str. 19)
  24. ^ www.jutarnji.hr U 581 Grobnici je 100.000 žrtava. English version: The Jutarnji newspaper reported on the 01/10/2009 commissions find, in all it is estimated that there are 100 000 victims in 581 mass graves
  25. ^ International Law Observer Responding to post-Second World War totalitarian crimes in Slovenia Posted on June 22, 2009 by Jernej Letnar Cernic
  26. ^ The European Commission:
    • "The Commission is independent of national governments. Its job is to represent and uphold the interests of the EU as a whole. It drafts proposals for new European laws, which it presents to the European Parliament and the Council. It is also the EU’s executive arm – in other words, it is responsible for implementing the decisions of Parliament and the Council. That means managing the day-to-day business of the European Union: implementing its policies, running its programmes and spending its funds. Like the Parliament and Council, the European Commission was set up in the 1950s under the EU’s founding treaties."
  27. ^ European Public Hearing on “Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes" Reports and proceedings of the 8 April European public hearing on “Crimes committed by totalitarian regimes”, organised by the Slovenian Presidency of the Council of the European Union (January–June 2008) and the European Commission. Page 197. Joze Dezman: COMMUNIST REPRESSION AND TRANSITIONAL JUSTICE IN SLOVENIA Additional chapter: COMMUNIST REPRESSION Of “INTERIOR ENEMIES” IN SLOVENIA
    • "In the greater part of this paper, the author deals with individual repressive measures that Communist rule imposed in Slovenia in the period from the end of the war in 1945 until the beginning of the 1950s. In this period, the Communist authorities in Slovenia implemented all the forms of repression that were typical of states with Stalinist regimes. In Slovenia, it was a time of mass killings without court trials, and of concentration and labour camps."
  28. ^ Titoism in Action: The Reforms in Yugoslavia After 1948 by Fred Warner Neal. (p214)
  29. ^ Totalitarian Dictatorship and Autocracy by Carl Joachim Friedrich & Zbigniew Brzezinski:
    • "Characteristics of a totalitarian regime; a total ideology, a single mass party, a terrorist secret police, a monopoly of mass communication, all instruments to wage combat are in the control of the same hands, and a centrally directed planned economy. Totalitarian dictatorships emerge after the seizure of power by the leaders of a movement who have developed support for an ideology. The point when the government becomes totalitarian is when the leadership uses open and legal violence to maintain its control. The dictator demands unanimous devotion from the people and often uses a real or imaginary enemy to create a threat so the people rally around him."
  30. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  31. ^ Governing by Committee: Collegial Leadership in Advanced Societies by Thomas A. Baylis. Communist Collective Leadership, (p91)
  32. ^ Government Leaders, Military Rulers and Political Activists: An Encyclopaedia of People Who Changed the World (Lives & Legacies Series)-By David W. Del Testa, Florence Lemoine & John Strickland/ Legacy Chapter (p181)
  33. ^ Discontents: Post-modern and Post-communist by Paul Hollander. (p377)
  34. ^ Keeping Tito Afloat by Lorraine M. Lees:
    • "Tito Afloat draws upon newly declassified documents to show the critical role that Yugoslavia played in U.S. foreign policy with the communist world in the early years of the Cold War. After World War II, the United States considered Yugoslavia to be a loyal Soviet satellite, but Tito surprised the West in 1948 by breaking with Stalin. Seizing this opportunity, the Truman administration sought to "keep Tito afloat" by giving him military and economic aid." (p67, p71, p74, p83, p85, p98, p90 & p182)
  35. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  36. ^ {{#invoke:citation/CS1|citation |CitationClass=web }}
  37. ^ Croatia: A History by Ivo Goldstein (p167, p187)
  38. ^ The Slovenia Times: Naming Street After Tito Unconstitutional
  39. ^ Frank Waddams, a British representative in the former Yugoslavia Death by Government by R. J. Rummel. (p354)
  40. ^ Crimes committed by totalitarian regimes Appendices/Appendix A: Foreign office documents on the 1947 show trial:
    • From Foreign Office to Belgrade, 15 August 1947 Waddams, vice-consul Ljubljana 1945, considers he may be the diplomatic representative referred to in the trial, as both Furlan and Sirc were the only people who helped him to get the Ljubljana consulate going when he first opened it. He considers this the probable reason for their sentence. (p143)

Notes

  • Reports and proceedings of the 8 April European public hearing on CRIMES COMMITTED BY TOTALITARIAN REGIMES, organised by the Slovenian Presidency of the Council of the European Union (January–June 2008) and the European Commission (2008 ; Bruxelles). Edited by Peter Jambrek and published by Slovenian Presidency of the Council of the European Union. The European public hearing addresses gross and large scale human rights violations committed during the reign of totalitarian regimes in Europe: cross- national survey of crimes committed and of their remembrance, recognition, redress, and reconciliation. Link
  • Encyclopaedia Britannica
  • Hrcak Portal of Scientific Journals of Croatia - An Addition to the Research of the Problem of Bleiburg & Way of the Cross by Zdravko Dizdar of the Croatian Institute of History Link
  • BBC-History: Partisan Fighters War in the Balkans 1941-1945. Dr Stephen A Hart: Senior lecturer in war studies at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst. Author of 'The Road to Falaise: Operations Totalize & Tractable' (Alan Sutton 2004), 'Montgomery and Colossal Cracks: The 21st Army Group in Northwest Europe,1944-45' (Praeger, 2000).
  • BBC-History by Tim Judah
  • Australia's Four Corners: Tito's UDBA Activities in Australia from the 1960's
  • Paul Hollander: Discontents: Post-modern and Post-communist
  • Great leaders, Great Tyrants Contemporary Views of World Rulers by Arnold Blumberg
  • Communist Retaliation and Persecution on Yugoslav Territory During and After WWII by Dr. ph. Michael Portmann (Fellow of the ZEIT Foundation in Hamburg, doctoral studies at the University of Vienna (Dr. phil.)
  • Identity Politics in the Age of Genocide: The Holocaust and Historical by David B. MacDonald
  • Yalta and The Bleiburg Tragedy by C Michael McAdams.University of San Francisco, California-USA. Presented at the International Symposium for Investigation of the Bleiburg Tragedy Zagreb, Croatia and Bleiburg, Austria May 17 and 18, 1994.
  • Ivo Goldstein: 'Croatia A History', a Mc Gill Queen’s University Press Publication
  • Mentioning the War: Genocide discussions in post-Tito Yugoslavia by Tea Sindbaek Link


External links

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Wikipedia has become the new battleground for Israel's PR image. The Yisrael Sheli (My Israel) movement and the Yesha Council, which represents Jewish communities in Judea and Samaria, have joined together for a new public relations initiative. Together they will soon offer a special course for volunteers who wish to write and edit English entries on Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia. (Israel National News)