IBM Research, a division of IBM, is a research and advanced development organization and currently consists of eight locations throughout the world and hundreds of projects. Its origins can be traced to the establishment in 1945 of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University.
Some major activities include the invention of innovative materials and structures, high-performance microprocessors and computers, analytical methods and tools, algorithms, software architectures, and methods for managing, searching and deriving meaning from data.
Among their most famous past developments are the Data Encryption Standard (DES), the classical computer language Formula Translation System (FORTRAN), the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), Benoît B. Mandelbrot's paper introducing Fractals, Magnetic disk storage (Hard Disks), One-transistor dynamic RAM (DRAM) (Dynamic random access memory), Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture, Relational databases, and the grandmaster level chess computer, Deep Blue. IBM Research's several contributions to physical sciences include the scanning tunneling microscope and high temperature superconductivity. Both these achievements were rewarded with Nobel Prizes.