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Alaska is a state of the United States in extreme northwest North America including the Aleutian Islands and Alexander Archipelago. It is separated from the other mainland states by British Columbia, Canada. Alaska was admitted as the 49th state in 1959 and is the largest state of the Union. The territory was purchased from Russia in 1867 for $7,200,000 and was known as Seward's Folly (after Secretary of State William H. Seward, who negotiated the purchase) until gold was discovered in the late 1800s. Juneau is the capital and Anchorage the largest city. Population: 663,000.

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History

Alaska

Vitus Bering, a Dane working for the Russians, and Alexei Chirikov discovered the Alaskan mainland and the Aleutian Islands in 1741. Bering died from scurvy later that winter on an island named after him, Bering Island.

Around this time the British, Spanish, and French were exploring the coast of Alaska. The unregulated exploitation of the fur resources by rival companies led to a depletion of accessible fur areas and the killing and enslavement of the peaceful Aleut natives. Consequently, this led to the chartering of the Russian American Company in 1799. Under its first manager, Alexander Baranov, which was a period of about 20 years, there was an order and systematic exploitation of the fur resources. In 1804, the settlement of Sitka was attacked and held by the Tlingit Indians. The Russians use a combined naval-military operation to force the natives out. Later, in 1805, the Tlingit Indians killed all of the Russian residents that were living at present day Yakutat. The cost of administering the Alaska territory put a significant drain on the Russian homeland. This cost and the disappearance of the sea otter and fur trade brought about the Russians trying to interest the United States in purchasing Alaska in 1859.

The tremendous land mass of Alaska—equal to one-fifth of the continental U.S. was still unexplored in 1867. And with the Civil War, the purchase was not completed until March 30, 1867 when the Treaty of Purchase was signed in Washington DC , affirmed by the Senate on April 9th, and signed by President Andrew Johnson on May 28th. The formal transfer of the Territory was made at Sitka on October 18, 1867. The purchase price was $7,200,000.00. Shortly afterwards, despite a price of about two cents an acre, the purchase was widely ridiculed as “Seward's Folly.” The first official census (1880) reported a total of 33,426 Alaskans, all but 430 being of aboriginal stock.

From 1867 until 1898 the US neglected the administration of the Territory. In 1896 the discovery of gold in the Yukon Territory of Canada fired the imagination of the world. The Gold Rush of 1898 resulted in a mass influx of more than 30,000 people. This brought thousands of gold seekers through Alaska on their way to the gold fields. Another strike was found in Nome, several in the Interior of Alaska along the Yukon River. The last major discovery brought Fairbanks into being in 1902. With the vast influx of people into Alaska, Congress had to apply Civil Codes and establish laws in the Territory. In 1902 the Alexander Archipelago Forest Reserve was created which became the Tongass National Forest in 1907. Since then, Alaska has contributed billions of dollars' worth of products to the US economy.

Alaska gained Territorial status with the United States Congress on August 24, 1912. This gave Alaska a say in the laws that were being passed to administer the Territory. Expectations were not live up to with Territorial status as there was a period of economic and population decline. The Alaska Railroad was build between Seward and Fairbanks between 1914 and 1923. Copper was shipped from the Kennecott Copper Mine to Cordova between 1911 and 1938. In 1935 Federal subsidies were provided to farmers from the Midwest and Dust Bowl to settle the Matanuska Valley Colony.

World War II brought a short lived influx of military personnel and a boom in building within the State. With the end of the war there was a decline in military personnel resulting in a short lived recession. The Cold War of the late 1940's brought about tremendous population and economic growth due to defense spending by the U.S. Government.

The most important result of all this activity was the movement for statehood. In 1949 the Alaska Statehood Committee launched a campaign which brought about the Alaska Statehood Act which was signed by President Eisenhower on July 7, 1958. On January 3, 1959, Alaska was officially proclaimed the forty-ninth state of the Union. From 1959 to present, Alaska has had economic booms with timber, oil, sea foods, and the tourism industries.

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Trivia

  • Outsiders first discovered Alaska in 1741 when Danish explorer Vitus Jonassen Bering sighted it on a voyage from Siberia.
  • Russian whalers and fur traders on Kodiak Island established the first settlement in Alaska in 1784.
  • In 1867 United States Secretary of State William H. Seward offered Russia $7,200,000, or two cents per acre, for Alaska.
  • On October 18, 1867 Alaska officially became the property of the United States. Many Americans called the purchase "Seward's Folly."
  • Joe Juneau's 1880 discovery of gold ushered in the gold rush era.
  • In 1943 Japan invaded the Aleutian Islands, which started the One Thousand Mile War, the first battle fought on American soil since the Civil War.
  • Alaska officially became the 49th state on January 3, 1959.
  • Alaska's most important revenue source is the oil and natural gas industry.
  • Alaska accounts for 25% of the oil produced in the United States.
  • The state of Rhode Island could fit into Alaska 425 times.
  • Prudhoe Bay, on the northern Alaskan coast, is North America's largest oil field.
  • The Trans-Alaska Pipeline moves up to 88,000 barrels of oil per hour on its 800 mile journey to Valdez.
  • The fishing and seafood industry is the state's largest private industry employer.
  • Most of America's salmon, crab, halibut, and herring come from Alaska.
  • The term Alaska native refers to Alaska's original inhabitants including Aleut, Eskimo and Indian groups.
  • The wild forget-me-not is the official state flower. The Territorial Legislature adopted it in 1917.
  • The willow ptarmigan is the official state bird. The Territorial Legislature adopted it in 1955.
  • The Sitka spruce is the official state tree. The Territorial Legislature adopted it in 1962.
  • Dog mushing is the official state sport. The Alaska Legislature adopted it in 1972.
  • An unnamed draftsman created the state seal in 1910. It consists of a rising sun shining on forests, lake, fishing and shipping boats, and agricultural and mining activities.
  • The state motto is North to the Future.
  • The jade is the official state gemstone.
  • Gold is the official state mineral. It was named the state mineral in 1968.
  • The four-spot skimmer dragonfly is the official state insect.
  • In 1926 13-year-old Bennie Benson from Cognac, Alaska designed the state flag.
  • Alaska has been called America's Last Frontier.
  • Every four years Alaskans elect a Governor and a Lieutenant Governor to four-year terms.
  • The Alaska State Legislature is made up of a Senate and a House of Representatives.
  • Twenty senators are elected to four-year terms; forty representatives serve two-year terms.
  • Alaska's Constitution was adopted in 1956 and became effective in 1959 making it the 49th state.
  • Nearly one-third of Alaska lies within the Arctic Circle.
  • The Alaska Highway was originally built as a military supply road during World War II.
  • The state boasts the lowest population density in the nation.
  • The discovery of gold in the Yukon began a gold rush in 1898. Later gold was discovered at Nome and Fairbanks.
  • Alaska is a geographical marvel. When a scale map of Alaska is superimposed on a map of the 48 lower states, Alaska extends from coast to coast.
  • The state's coastline extends over 6,600 miles.
  • Alaska is the United State's largest state and is over twice the size of Texas. Measuring from north to south the state is approximately 1,400 miles long and measuring from east to west it is 2,700 miles wide.
  • Agattu, Attu, and Kiska are the only parts of North America occupied by Japanese troops during World War II.
  • Oil is the state's most valuable natural resource. The area includes what is thought to be the largest oil field in North America.
  • In 1986 Mount Augustine erupted near Anchorage.
  • Alaska's geographic center is 60 miles northwest of Mount McKinley.
  • The Tongass National Forest is the largest national forest in the United States.
  • 17 of the 20 highest peaks in the United States are located in Alaska.
  • At 20,320 feet above sea level, Mt. McKinley, located in Alaska's interior, is the highest point in North America.
  • Juneau is the only capital city in the United States accessible only by boat or plane.
  • The state's largest city is Anchorage; the second largest is Fairbanks.
  • The Alaska Range is the largest mountain chain in the state. It covers from the Alaska Peninsula to the Yukon Territory.
  • In 1915 the record high temperature in Alaska was 100 degrees Fahrenheit at Fort Yukon; the record low temperature was -80 degrees Fahrenheit at Prospect Creek Camp in 1971.
  • The Alaskan malamute sled dog is strong and heavily coated. It was developed as a breed by a group of Eskimos named the Malemiuts.
  • Alaska's name is based on the Eskimo word Alakshak meaning great lands or peninsula.

Alaska Map

<googlemap lat="61.674238" lon="-158.818359" zoom="7"> 61.304725, -158.821461, Alaska, USA </googlemap> <embed> <iframe src="http://rcm.amazon.com/e/cm?t=fe01-20&o=1&p=48&l=st1&mode=books&search=alaska%20travel%20guide&fc1=000000&lt1=_blank&lc1=3366FF&bg1=FFFFFF&f=ifr" marginwidth="0" marginheight="0" width="728" height="90" border="0" frameborder="0" style="border:none;" scrolling="no"></iframe> </embed>

External links

  • Alaska.gov - Official Web site of the state of Alaska offers information about state and local government, education, employment, health care, tourism, and more.

Alaska - Fact Sheet - American FactFinder

http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/ACSSAFFFacts?_event=Search&geo_id=04000US01&_geoContext=01000US%7C04000US01&_street=&_county=&_cityTown=&_state=04000US02 The U.S. Census Bureau provides easy access to statistical tables and thematic maps for the state of Alaska.

Alaska Constitution Table of Contents

http://www.gov.state.ak.us/ltgov/akcon/table.html Complete transcription of the present constitution of the state of Alaska, which became effective on Jan. 3, 1959. Provided by the Alaska lieutenant governor's office.

Alaska Department of Education

http://www.eed.state.ak.us/ Alaska state education department provides an overview of the agency and information on educational facilities, school districts, programs, and other related resources.

Alaska Fact Sheet: AK agriculture income population food education employment farms top commodities exports counties financial indicators poverty organic farming farm income America USDA free spinach

http://www.ers.usda.gov/StateFacts/AK.HTM Fact sheet providing latest information on population, employment, income, and top commodities for the state of Alaska. From the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.

Alaska State Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation

http://www.dnr.state.ak.us/parks/units/index.htm Web site of the Alaska Division of Parks and Outdoor Recreation lists parks in alphabetical order in eight different regions of the state. Each park site offers information on facilities, fees, and recreation. Includes maps.

Alaska State Library

http://www.library.state.ak.us/hist/pca/pca.html Web site of the Alaska State Library offers general descriptions of its holdings. Also features online access to a series of outstanding collections of manuscripts, photographs, and maps that highlight Alaska's history.

Alaskool.org - Alaska Native history, education, languages, and cultures

http://www.alaskool.org/default.htm Online materials about Alaska native history, education, languages, and culture. Provided by the Alaska Native Curriculum and Teacher Development Project.

All US Newspapers / Sort by Title

http://www.newspapers.com/usa_news.htm Newspapers.com (based in Madison, Wis.) provides links to the Web sites of newspapers in the United States, organized by state. Also includes searchable sets of links to college newspapers and TV/radio stations.

America's Byways - Alaska

http://www.byways.org/explore/states/AK/ Part of Federal Highway Administration's Web site promoting all-American roads and state-designated scenic byways, this section offers road maps, quick facts, and slide shows for the points of interest along the roads and highways of Alaska.

American Museum of Natural History

http://www.amnh.org/exhibitions/Jesup/premain.html Drawing Shadows to Stone commemorates the 1897-1902 Jesup North Pacific Expedition, which documented Native cultures in Canada, Alaska, and Siberia. Photos, correspondence, and other items reveal the scope of early anthropological fieldwork.

Arctic Studies Center - Crossroads of Continents

http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/features/croads/ The National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution provides this virtual exhibition devoted to the peoples of northeastern Siberia and Alaska--the "Crossroads of Continents" between Asia and North America.

Bering Land Bridge National Preserve (National Park Service)

http://www.nps.gov/bela/ Web site of the Bering Land Bridge National Preserve in Alaska, maintained by the National Park Service, offers visitor information. Click on "inDEPTH" for additional data on location, history, wildlife, climate, and activities.

CAMAI - UAA's Campus-Wide Information System

http://www.uaa.alaska.edu/ Home page of the University of Alaska system offers access to campus information of branches throughout the state. University-related legislation and access to the Statewide Library Electronic Doorway(SLED) are offered as well.

Canada's First Nations

http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/firstnations/ This multimedia tutorial focuses on the histories of Canada's First Nations from ancient times to the 19th century. Provided by the Department of History at the University of Calgary.

City and Borough of Juneau, Alaska

http://www.juneau.org/ Official Web site of Juneau offers information for residents of and visitors to the city and borough of Juneau, Alaska, ranging from city services to live Webcam images.

DataFinder - Population Reference Bureau

http://www.prb.org/datafind/prjprbdata/wcprbdata7.asp?DW=DF&SL=&SA=2 The Population Reference Bureau's "DataFinder" provides information on more than 250 social, economic, and demographic variables (from ethnicity and disability to housing and commuting) for each of the 50 U.S. states and the District of Col

FindLaw: State Resources

http://www.findlaw.com/11stategov/ A comprehensive, searchable legal database that provides access to all U.S. state/territory government agencies, statutes, codes, and a host of additional state government resources. From FindLaw, a legal research tool.

Historical United States Census Data Browser

http://fisher.lib.Virginia.EDU/census/ Rich source of electronically browsable historical U.S. census data from 1790 to 1960. Categorized by state and county. Provided by the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research.

Home page Sheldon Jackson Museum

http://www.museums.state.ak.us/Sheldon%20Jackson/sjhome.html From the Alaska State Museums Web site, this page on the Sheldon Jackson Museum in Sitka, Alaska, provides information about the museum, its collections, selected artifacts (with color photos), and a schedule of demonstrations by native artists.

I Love Alaska - Alaskan Communities

http://www.ilovealaska.com/alaska/ From McPhee Publications Inc., fact sheets on all communities of the state of Alaska. Web site also offers a searchable "Alaska Links Encyclopedia."

Iditarod

http://www.iditarod.com/ Offers a wealth of information on the Iditarod, including specifics on mushers, rules, history, and trail maps. Provides archived reports of past races, as well as links to related Web sites.

LII: Statutes

http://www.law.cornell.edu/statutes.html#state Well-organized (by state and by topic) index of links to information on and texts of U.S. state codes, constitutions, statutes, judicial opinions, and other state legal resources. From the Legal Information Institute of Cornell Law School.

Meeting of Frontiers

http://frontiers.loc.gov/intldl/mtfhtml/mfsplash.html Organized by the Library of Congress, this joint U.S.-Russian Web site presents a comparative history of the American West and Siberia. Includes text, images, and rare documents illustrating various aspects of exploration, migration, and colonization.

NACo - About Counties - Find a County

http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm The National Association of Counties provides "The History of County Government" and a variety of data on each county in each U.S. state: elected officials, cities and towns, census results, and more. Data are arranged by state via a clickable map.

National Park Service - Experience Your America

http://www.nps.gov/ U.S. National Park Service Web site provides descriptions of parks, monuments, and preserves, along with other information useful to those preparing to visit. Information on individual parks is accessible by state/territory, activity, or topic.

National Register of Historical Places

http://www.nationalregisterofhistoricplaces.com/ Web site of the National Register of Historic Places provides information on some 80,000 sites and structures, arranged by state and county. Data include area of significance, architect, style, period, function, associated historic person(s), and more.

NewsVoyager

http://www.newspaperlinks.com/voyager.cfm Web sites of U.S. daily and weekly newspapers (arranged by state and city within state), media groups, and leading newspapers worldwide (by region). Offered by the Newspaper Association of America.

Norwegian-American Historical Association - The Introduction of Domesticated Reindeer into Alaska

http://www.naha.stolaf.edu/pubs/nas/volume11/vol11_7.htm From the Web site of the Norwegian-American Historical Association, article “The Introduction of Domesticated Reindeer into Alaska,” by Arthur S. Peterson, first published in the association's 'Norwegian-American Studies' 11:98-113 (1940).

Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: Alaska

http://censtats.census.gov/data/AK/04002.pdf Statistical profile of the state of Alaska based on the latest census data. Includes demographic, social, economic, and housing characteristics. Provided by the U.S. Census Bureau. In PDF format (requires Acrobat Reader).

Project Vote Smart - American Government, Elections, Candidates and Voting

http://www.vote-smart.org/ Project Vote Smart, a volunteer organization, provides a database of information on U.S. political candidates (at all levels) and issues, with links to many other political/social sources. Can be searched by ZIP Code or browsed by state ("My State").

SSEC - Volcano Watch Satellite Images

http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/data/volcano.html Satellite images (updated every 30 min.) of the world's ten most active volcanoes, located in Alaska, Sicily, Mexico, Kamchatka, Montserrat, Guatemala, Ecuador, Galapagos Islands, and Java. An animation feature shows a simulation over a two-hour period.

State and Local Government on the Net: Alaska

http://www.statelocalgov.net/state-ak.htm Directory of official state, county, and city government Web sites for Alaska. Maintained by Piper Resources, an Internet publishing firm.

Stateline.org

http://www.stateline.org/ The Web site of the Pew Center on the States, University of Richmond, focuses on politics at the state level, providing current and archived news items, background information and statistics on prominent issues, and profiles of the individual states.

The Iditarod SuperSite

http://www.dogsled.com/ In addition to providing information on the Iditarod, more data is included on mushers, Iditarod history, race rules, and the trail, along with links to related Web sites.

The Russian Church and Native Alaskan Cultures

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/russian/ Russian Church and Native Alaskan Culture exhibit, mounted by the Library of Congress, is comprised of numerous images and documents, mostly written in Russian and in the Alaskan native languages, and accompanied by an introductory text.

Travel Alaska

http://www.travelalaska.com/ Web site of the Alaska Travel Industry Association features a clickable map leading to information on attractions, accommodations, state and national parks, and communities in five different regions. Includes a trip planner, maps, and a photo gallery.

Welcome to Alaska's Digital Archive

http://vilda.alaska.edu/ Wealth of historical photographs, oral histories, moving images, maps, documents, and other materials from libraries, museums, and archives throughout the state. A project of the University of Alaska and the Alaska State Library.

Wild-Eyed Alaska, An Educational Exploration into Alaskan Wildlife

http://www.hhmi.org/alaska/ Gull Island in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, is the setting for video cameras set up by the Pratt Museum to show seabirds, underwater life, and scenes of winter--all with explanatory text. Viewing the images requires Real Player software.

World View of Global Warming

http://www.worldviewofglobalwarming.org/ Web site illustrates the effects of global warming with photos and graphs. Includes sections on polar regions (Antarctica, Alaska), other climatic zones, glaciers, coastlines, and paleoclimate. Created by Gary Braasch of the Blue Earth Alliance, Seattle.

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Alaska United States AK US