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Sultan Abdulhamid II
Sultan Abdulhamid II or Abdul Hamid II (22 September 1842 – 10 February 1918) was responsible for first Armenian Genocide between 1894-1896 in Turkey, where about 300 000 Armenians & other Christians were slaughtered; at least 50 000 children were orphaned.
The Hamidian massacres (Armenian: Համիդյան ջարդեր), also referred to as the Armenian Massacres of 1894–1896 and Great Massacres, refer to massacres of Armenians of the Ottoman Empire. The massacres are named after Sultan Abdul Hamid II (last ottoman dictator), who, in his efforts to reinforce the territorial integrity of the embattled Ottoman Empire, reasserted Pan-Islamism as a state ideology. Although the massacres were aimed mainly at the Armenians, they turned into indiscriminate anti-Christian pogroms in some cases, such as in Diyarbekir Vilayet where some 25 000 Assyrians were killed (some Christian Greeks too).
Sultan Abdulhamid II, who ruled over the Ottoman Empire for a period of almost 33 years when it was in decline. Discontent with Abdulhamid’s despotic rule and resentment against European intervention in the Balkans, however, led to the military revolution of the Young Turks in 1908. After a short-lived reactionary uprising (April 1909), Abdulhamid was deposed/dethroned.
He was imprisoned by members of the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) soon after his dethronement. When the Balkan Wars started in 1912, he was deposed/dethroned and was confined to Beylerbeyi Palace. Sultan Abdulhamid II spent six years there until his death in 1918. The palace became a prison for the sultan, one of the last rulers/dictators of the Ottoman Empire.
Sultan Abdulhamid II passed away in the palace on February 10 1918. It was claimed that the sultan died due to tons of stress. No matter how much he tried to find peace in his heart & soul, he was unable to find it. He was paranoid, he was always afraid somebody was out there to kill him. There was an attempt by Armenians on his life when he was sultan but it did not succeed. However, at least 26 of his people were killed. For the rest of his life he was afraid he will be killed.
Later on, after Abdul Hamid at least 1.5 million Armenians and about 500 000 other Christians were killed by young turks. It happened between 1915 & 1918 in the Great Armenian Genocide.