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Jupiter Diameter: 142,984 km, 11 Earth diameters Planetary Mass: 1.89x1027 kg, 317.8 Earth masses Average Distance from Sun: 778 million km, 5.203 AU (astronomical units) Length of Day: 9 hours 55 minutes Length of Year: 11.86 Earth years How many moons does Jupiter have?: 39 Planetary ring system: Yes Average temperature: ~165 K (-108 C) Atmospheric composition: Mostly Hydrogen and Helium.

AU stands for astronomical unit. One AU is the average distance from the center of the Earth to the center of the Sun: 149,597,870 km

Facts about Jupiter's Moons

Jupiter Mass (1024 kg) 1,898.6 Volume (1010 km3) 143,128 Radius (1 bar level) (km)

   Equatorial                     71,492
   Polar                          66,854

Ellipticity 0.06487 Mean density (kg/m3) 1,326 Gravity (eq., 1 bar) (m/s2) 23.12 Escape velocity (km/s) 59.5 Number of natural satellites 39 Facts about Jupiter's Moons Planetary ring system Yes

Jupiter Orbital parameters Semimajor axis (106 km) 778.57 Sidereal orbit period (days) 4,332.589 Perihelion (106 km) 740.52 Aphelion (106 km) 816.62 Synodic period (days) 398.88 Orbit inclination (deg) 1.304 Orbit eccentricity 0.0489 Sidereal rotation period (hours) 9.9250* Length of day (hrs) 9.9259 Obliquity to orbit (deg) 3.13

Semimajor axis (106 km) Mean distance from the Sun (or other central body in the

                                case of satellites) from center to center in 10^6 kilometers

Sidereal orbit period (days) The time it takes the body to make one revolution about

                                the Sun relative to the fixed stars in days.

Synodic period (days) The time interval between similar configurations in the

                                orbit (e.g. opposition) of the body and Earth, in days.

Perihelion (106 km) The point in a body's orbit closest to the

                                Sun, in 10^6 kilometers.

Aphelion (106 km) The point in a body's orbit furthest from

                                the Sun, in 10^6 kilometers.

Orbit inclination (deg) The inclination of the orbit to the ecliptic, in degrees.

                                For satellites, this is with respect to the planet's

Orbit eccentricity A measure of the circularity of the orbit, equal to

                                (aphelion - perihelion distance)/(2 x semi-major axis)
                                For a circular orbit, eccentricity = 0.

Sidereal rotation period (hrs) The time for one rotation of the body on its axis

                                relative to the fixed stars, in hours.  A minus sign
                                indicates retrograde rotation.

Length of day (hrs) The average time in hours for the Sun to move from the

                                noon position in the sky at a point on the equator back
                                to the same position, on Earth this defines a 24 hour day.

Obliquity to orbit (deg) The tilt of the body's equator relative to the body's

                                orbital plane, in degrees.

  • System III (1965.0) coordinates

Jupiter Observational Parameters Discoverer: Unknown Discovery Date: Prehistoric

Distance from Earth

       Minimum (106 km)          588.5
       Maximum (106 km)          968.1

Apparent diameter from Earth

       Maximum (seconds of arc)   49.0
       Minimum (seconds of arc)   29.8

Mean values at opposition from Earth

       Distance from Earth (106 km)        628.76
       Apparent diameter (seconds of arc)   46.9
       Apparent visual magnitude            -2.7

Maximum apparent visual magnitude -2.94

Jovian Atmosphere Surface Pressure: >>1000 bars Temperature at 1 bar: ~165 K (-108 C) Temperature at 0.1 bar: ~112 K (-161 C) Density at 1 bar: ~0.16 kg/m3 Wind speeds

  Up to ~150 m/s (<30 degrees latitude)
  Up to  ~40 m/s (>30 degrees latitude)

Atmospheric composition (by volume, uncertainty in parentheses)

   Major:       Molecular hydrogen (H2) - 89.8% (2.0%); Helium (He) - 10.2% (2.0%)
   Minor (ppm): Methane (CH4) - 3000 (1000); Ammonia (NH3) - 260 (40);
                Hydrogen Deuteride (HD) - 28 (10); Ethane (C2H6) - 5.8 (1.5);
                Water (H2O) - ~4 (varies with pressure)
   Aerosols:    Ammonia ice, water ice, ammonia hydrosulfide